Module 11: Key Terms

analgesic: pain relief property of certain medications (aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, and others).

carfentanil: a derivative of fentanyl, synthesized from morphine; many times more potent by mass than fentanyl; high addictive potential.

epidemic: a widespread disease, disorder, or problem affecting a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population or community at the same time.

fentanyl: synthetic opioid, intended for pain relief; misuse occurs as it is combined with other substances, markedly increasing risk of overdose; high addictive potential.

heroin: opioid drug derived from morphine, illegal in the United States; high addictive potential.

hyperalgesia: abnormally enhanced pain sensitivity.

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS): a cluster of problems present in newborn infants who have a history of being exposed to opiate/opioid drugs while in utero; acute withdrawal from the addictive drugs as the placental connection to mother’s system is broken at birth.

opiate: substances derived from opium (opium poppy).

opioid: substances synthetically constructed to interact with opioid receptors in the human body; term currently may also apply to substances derived from opium (opiates).

tolerance: when a person’s body adapts to use of a specific substance to the point where increased doses are necessary to provoke the same level of response or the response is lessened when the dose remains constant; one criteria used to diagnose substance use disorders (addiction).