Annotated Bibliography

Citation Annotation      
A. Donald, Cameron & DasGupta, Sayantani & M. Metzl, Jonathan & Eckstrand, Kristen. (2016). Queer Frontiers in Medicine: A Structural Competency Approach. Academic Medicine. 92. 1. 10.1097 This article explores the concept of structural competency as an innovative approach to be adopted when training health care providers, particularly in a medical school setting, to take care of LGBT individuals. Rather than relying solely upon teaching students to consider the unique needs of LGBT communities as a function of cultural difference, the structural competency approach requires providers to consider systemic factors that contribute to disparate health outcomes. Recognition that structural factors such discriminatory public policies, codified practices that stigmatize LGBT identities, implicit bias, etc. contribute to disparate health outcomes will enable health care providers to increase their ability to provider culturally and structurally competent care to the LGBT population. The article recommends practical steps for indicating structural competence, such as inclusion of pronouns on patient intake forms, incorporation of LGBT specific support groups, application of trauma informed care practices, etc.
Aarons, G. A., Ehrhart, M. G., Torres, E. M., Finn, N. K., & Beidas, R. (2017).  The Humble Leader: Association of Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Implementation Leadership with Organizational Climate in Mental Health.  Retrieved from: This article looks at the discrepancies of leaders’ self-ratings and the ratings of followers via the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) and the association of those discrepancies with organizational climate for involvement and performance. The authors describe how feedback results in a more positive organization. Aarons and colleagues note that feedback is particularly important in the mental health field but also other allied health care settings. This article will be valuable in the pressbook chapter.
Ablett, J. R. and Jones, R. S. P. (2007), Resilience and well-being in palliative care staff: a qualitative study of hospice nurses' experience of work. Psycho-Oncology, 16: 733–740. doi:10.1002/pon.1130 This article speaks to the negative impacts that stress can have on staff mental and physical health, patient care, and on organizations as a whole. It has been shown that healthcare workers, especially those working directly with patients, experience more stress, and can lead to higher burnout. This ultimately can lead to poorer patient care. The article speaks of many factors that can lead high levels of stress in palliative care staff, such as working with patients that are in pain/suffering, confrontation of their own mortality, and at times having to work with young patients. I found it incredibly surprising that although many palliative workers have to work in environments that would be considered highly stressful that they do not seem to show higher levels of stress than their non-palliative care peers, and may show lower levels of burnout. This study set out to see what factors helped hospice nurses to have a higher level of resilience to ward off working in such a stressful environment. I found this study to be incredibly helpful in breaking down what factors led to higher levels of resiliency within this sample of nurses. The study broke down the themes of the interviews into ten categories. Theme number 4, personal attitudes towards life (and death), was of particular interest to me. Many nurses mentioned that working in palliative healthcare provided them with a unique perspective of mortality, and the importance of living life to the fullest. This in a way helped them to further build their own resilience, and remain positive in field that seems to be overwhelmingly negative and sad. Seeing as how resiliency is one of the core areas of focus of both positive psychology and Positive Organizational Behavior (POB), understanding how staff in palliative healthcare fields build resiliency is essential to understanding the role that POB plays in the palliative care field.
Adam Grant on Feedback, Equality, & Psychological Safety. (n.d.). Retrieved from This podcast provides another interesting spin on interpersonal feedback by discussing “continuous feedback: and its value among peers. The person being interviewed, Adam Grant, is the author of a book titled “Originals” which is about how nonconformists help shape the world around us. He offers an interesting perspective on continuous feedback and also psychological safety. This interview was brief but offers fodder for developing further research on this topic. If nothing else, a great jumping off point to get the wheels spinning on the importance of interpersonal feedback.
Aguirre, B. E., Wolinsky, F. D., Niederauer, J., Keith, V., & Fann, L. (1992). Occupational Prestige in the Health Care Delivery System. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33(3). doi:10.2307/2137348 This study focuses on occupational prestige in the healthcare system. It takes into account gender and ethnic differences. It used 1980s census data, so may be outdated. It did use data form 19 health occupations in the 31 largest standard metropolitan statistical areas, so it does seem to be comprehensive. It found groups with greater relative occupational dispersion, greater political participation, advanced education, and higher sex ratios have greater relative occupational prestige in the health care delivery system.
Aij, K. H., & Rapsaniotis, S. (2017). Leadership requirements for Lean versus servant leadership in health care: a systematic review of the literature.  Journal of Healthcare Leadership ,  9 , 1–14. This systematic review looks at both Lean and Servant Leadership. The inclusion criteria required being in English, published in a peer-review journal, study design as an empirical study or theoretical review, having a lean or servant leadership focus, and a description of one or more aspects of leadership. Exclusion criteria included language (not English), lack of lean or servant leadership, and industries described other than healthcare. Helpful charts, especially Table 3, compare the leadership aspects of both lean and servant leadership. The aspects covered are origins, philosophy, characteristics, values, tools, organizational culture, and organizational performance. There are several parallels between servant leadership and fairness on the AWS: reduction in costs, enhancement of procedural justice, and trust in the organization.
Alimo-Metcalfe, B. (1998). 360 Degree Feedback and Leadership Development. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 6 (1), 35-44. Retrieved from: Published in the late 90s, Alimo-Metcalfe describes how 360-degree feedback is taking off as one of the most used feedback instruments for developing effective leadership. This is more of a “plug” for the feedback tool than it is for its overall impact on leadership development but may prove helpful for exposing areas for improvement for the tool. This may or may not end up being cited in the chapter.
Anderson, L. M., Scrimshaw, S. C., Fullilove, M. T., Fielding, J. E., & Normand, J. (2003). Culturally competent healthcare systems: A systematic review.  American journal of preventive medicine ,  24 (3), 68-79. This article provided a review regarding how health care systems can integrate cultural competency to improve overall patient care. This was helpful for my book chapter as it looked at the effectiveness of different programs and where further research is needed. It was also helpful as it helped me to expand and further understand the definition of cultural competence and its role in health care systems.
Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: development and validation of the team climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19(3), 235-258. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099-1379(199805);2-3 This articles describes the development and validation of the Team Climate Inventory, which is a tool to measure the climate for innovation without groups at the workplace. Proximal work groups are the permanent or semi-permanent teams to which individuals are assigned, identify and interact with regular, and have commitment to its ongoing social structure. Four major factors are predictive of innovativeness in the work place: vision, participative safety, task orientation, and support for innovation. Using the root components of these 4 predictors, the researchers created a 61 item model and tested it for validity. It can be used as a self-report measure for the climate within work groups and organizational teams, team building and development, selection of new tam members, and group development over time.
Angood, P., & Birk, S. (2014). The Value of Physician Leadership.  Physician Executive Journal, 6-22. The current rapid change in the health care environment creates a great opportunity for physician leadership. Evidence suggests that physician leaders play a big role in providing high-quality patient care and they have a great impact on the performance of their hospitals. What distinguished physician leaders from other leaders is that they have deep knowledge about patient care, which can make them more sensitive to clinical staff’s needs, as well as patients’ needs. Their deep understanding makes it possible for them to work together with other physicians to find a solution collaboratively. They are considered the bridge between management and medicine, with a patient-centered focus, instead of a financial focus. Their shared history and common language with other clinical staff helps them build trust and support, which helps with organizational change. The article touches on several attributes that physician leaders have that make them great leaders due to their background, but it also highlights areas where they might lack skills. Ways the article suggests that making the transition possible is through servant leadership and leadership inclusiveness. The article finishes by identifying different competency areas for physician leaders.
Applegate, M. S., MD. (2018, February 24). Leadership Story of Mary S. Applegate, MD [Telephone interview]. Dr. Mary S. Applegate is a double board certified pediatrician with over 20 years of experience as a practicing physician. She currently serves as the Medical Director for the Ohio Department of Medicaid. In this role she is responsible for health outcome improvement and ensuring that Medicaid beneficiaries in Ohio are receiving high quality health care. Dr. Applegate has also held many other leadership positions throughout her career. In this interview, Dr. Applegate talks about the importance of having a good leader for any team, the value of teamwork, the need for constant learning, and her leadership style. She also talks about her experiences making changes within organizations and how those who make changes from the bottom up “often do not realize they are leading something until they have followers.”
Aragon, T. J., & Garcia, B. A. (2015). Designing a Learning Health Organization for Collective Impact. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 21(1), S24-S33. Retrieved from For many local and state health departments, there has been a push to address complex demands in innovative ways as we move towards accreditation. The San Francisco Department of Public Health’s (SFDPH) Population Health Division used the accreditation process as a promoter in restructuring the organization. In the process they found that Collective Impact was actually a “quality improvement framework applied to complex social problems.” They then produced the Health Equity X (HEX) model to serve as a visual representation on how complex, diverse, and connected all groups are, but it also can organize collective thinking. As SFDPH discovered, collective impact “complements other community-engagement approaches,” but will be of great use to public health due to many players having a common agenda and back quality improvement.
Aranzamendez, G., James, D., & Toms, R. (2014). Finding Antecedents of Psychological Safety: A Step Toward Quality Improvement. Nursing Forum, 50(3), 171-178. doi:10.1111/nuf.12084 The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of environmental climates in healthcare organizations which promote and support psychological safety. The main researchers in this article are nurses. This article is unique is that its main focus is on the antecedents of developing a feeling of psychological safety in the healthcare team from a nursing perspective. They identify several characteristics of leaders that are important in fostering a psychologically safe environment: leadership inclusiveness, trustworthiness, change-oriented, and ethical leadership. These are themes that are behaviors of the leader as well as create a positive relationship between the leader and team members.
Atwal, A., & Caldwell, K. (2005). Do all health and social care professionals interact equally: a study of interactions in multidisciplinary teams in the United Kingdom. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 19(3), 268-273. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2005.00338.x Medical teams are putting more emphasis on interdisciplinary team work, collaboration, and communication. Each person of the team offers unique perspectives, training, and knowledge through their varied experiences. This has become an integral part of medicine but requires a “competence to collaborate”. Perceived status differences, role boundaries, and communication problems are only a few barriers that these teams can face. This study is done from interviews, surveys, and direct observation of the real work of multidisciplinary medical teams. It found that the physician leaders of the team were highly active in participation but physician and occupational therapists as well as social workers were rarely involved. Nurses were involved to a varying degree.
Atwater, L. E., & Waldman, D. A. (2008). Leadership, feedback, and the open communication gap. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from: Atwater and Alderman discuss how open communication between leaders and followers can be a tool to relay positive information such as “job well done” or “here is XYZ vision” as well as negative information such as “you need to improve on this” or “this was completed unsatisfactorily”. The former is rather easy to do and often results in improved moral. However, the latter is more difficult to deliver and can have unwanted impacts on moral and the leader-employee relationship; thus, making feedback a somewhat necessary evil. This resource is valuable because it is straightforward and includes cases followed by analysis to drive home the point. Three of the chapters are relevant to the feedback chapter for the pressbook. This book also includes resources on how to provide feedback within different cultural contexts and based on personality types.
Atwater, L. E., Brett, J. F., & Charles, A. C. (2007). Multisource feedback: Lessons learned and implications for practice. Human Resource Management, 46 (2), 285-307. Retrieved from: This article is a description of how to best utilize the 360-degree feedback instrument (also referred to as multisource feedback (MSF)). The authors dive into how to administer the feedback with this tool and also what follow up is needed after feedback is given. This is an important point because feedback is often a continuous cycle and this article addresses that. I think this article will be helpful because it uses two real world examples to show the 3 year impact of 360-degree feedback which has not been addressed in many other articles evaluating its usefulness.
Atwater, L., Roush, P., & Fischthal, A. (1995). The Influence Of Upward Feedback On Self- And Follower Ratings Of Leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48(1), 35-59. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01745.x Retrieved from: Published in the journal of Personnel Psychology, the authors open the article by summarizing feedback relevant to their later discussion - impact of upward feedback on behavior, value of practice, self- and other ratings, and effects of different types of feedback. Authors conducted a quasi-experimental study with 2 pre-post tests in which they asked U.S. Naval Academy student leaders’ followers to provide formal feedback to their direct supervisors. The supervisors were also asked to self-assess and were grouped based on their relative agreement with the ratings from their followers. Authors found that the effects of feedback were generally positive for motivating the leader’s behavior change and self-rating. They also found that leaders who overestimated their self-ratings ended up lowering their self-rating closer to what their followers rated and improved their leadership behavior. This finding supports other research that leaders will alter their behavior and perception to decrease the discrepancy between their self-rating and their follower’s rating. This lends credibility to the idea that leaders who overestimate their behavior are the poorest performers, but feedback provides self-awareness and can stimulate change to improve. This quasi-experiment demonstrates the author’s points and is well designed with a large n and appropriate statistical analysis. This article is helpful for the pressbook chapter because it provides background on leadership feedback and an example of how to structure it.
Bajaj, B., Pande, N. (2015), Mediating role of resilience in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and affect as indices of subjective well-being, Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 93, 2016, Pages 63-67, This study out of India looks at the impacts of mindfulness on life satisfaction, resilience, and well-being. The study also introduces many measurement tools that could be useful for leaders to use in their own teams, such as The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Non-traditional measuring tools and goals that set around such instruments can be beneficial for teams looking to take a more positive approach. One line that really stood out from the study was “Mindfulness produces emotional balance and may help in faster recovery from setbacks”. In other words, it appears as if this mindfulness based intervention may show promise to help individuals build resilience.
Bakker, A. B. and Schaufeli, W. B. (2008), Positive organizational behavior: engaged employees in flourishing organizations. J. Organiz. Behav., 29: 147–154. doi:10.1002/job.515 This editorial calls for a shift away from the four D’s model, a psychology term that has been applied to an organizational context, that focuses on preventing low-performance, low motivation, and disengagement. Instead it calls for a shift toward focusing on positive behaviors that are found within engaged employees and organizations that are flourishing. One of the most impactful findings discussed in the editorial is that job demands did not result in high levels of burnout if employees experienced quality job resources. In other words, the effort required to do a job that drains staff and leads to burnout can be overcome by providing opportunities for growth and development. This can be incredibly useful in healthcare settings, especially in palliative care settings where the constant presence of death, and the drain of families concerned for their loved ones can take a toll on palliative professionals. This shows the importance of having ample job resources in all professions, but may be imperative in fields with such high stressful job characteristics.
Bauman, A., Norman, P., Idriss-Wheeler, D. (2015). Employees Participating in change (EPIC): An empowerment approach to improving staff health, safety, and wellness. The International Journal of Health, Wellness, and Society . 5(4) 1-14. This article summarizes a health and safety intervention program that puts staff in control of making their environment safe. The idea is that empowered staff can help increase their safety, health, and wellness therefore creating a culture that will aid in providing better patient care. Employees could first be educated about safety skills and then be able to find things in their own work environment that could be improved. The term safety climate was used to explain the culture organizations have to safety. The more leadership was committed to safety the less risky behavior employees were found to take and vice versa. Leadership being involved in support of staff safety was one of the guides for the implementation of the safety program. Perceived risk is also an interesting topic this article brought up, because the level of perceived risk increased after staff were educated and made aware of what may be potential risks in their work environment. Strong communication throughout and leadership commitment and communication about creating a safe environment for employees contributed to the success of the program.
Bell, B. S., & Kozlowski, S. W. (2002). A typology of virtual teams: Implications for effective leadership.  Group & Organization Management ,  27 (1), 14-49. Bell and Kozlowski reviewed the differences between traditional teams and virtual teams and focus on four key characteristics of virtual teams: temporal distribution, boundary spanning, lifecycle, and member roles. These four characteristics are not mutually exclusive and teams have a combination of them. The article also discussed a leader’s performance management functions and team development functions and the skills in these areas needed to effectively lead virtual teams. This article will be helpful in discussing the types of virtual teams and can provide supporting information when discussing strategies of leading effective virtual teams.
Benson, R. T., & Trower, C. a. (2012). Data, Leadership, and Catalyzing Culture Change. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning , 44 (4), 27–34. This reading was particularly useful in summarizing the lessons learned when it comes to using data to drive change in an academic setting specifically. The research group COACHE implemented surveys to analyze how tenure-track faculty job satisfaction could define modes of change for campuses and junior level faculty. Again, discussion on importance of transparency of data arose. I particularly found important the description of transparency as the “warts-and-all” approach to data disclosure. I thought it was also important that the authors discussed the benefit of using data to disaggregate populations. Through demography classification, marginalized groups could be disaggregated and analyzed to bolster validity to disparities that previously were explained away as anomalies. Overall, this reading gives perspective to various case studies on how institutional and organizational culture can be improved through data driven decisions.
Bergiel, B. J., Bergiel, E. B., & Balsmeier, P. W. (2008). Nature of virtual teams: a summary of their advantages and disadvantages.  Management Research News ,  31 (2), 99-110. Bergiel, Bergiel, and Balsmeier discusses the elements required of virtual teams and the challenges that they must overcome to be successful in this article. The authors recognize that many of the factors that make traditional teams successful are also necessary for virtual teams. These include trust, communication, leadership, and clear goals. It also identified things like time zones and clear communication as significant barriers. This article provided a good overview of the advantages and disadvantages to utilizing virtual teams. Advantages include limiting costs in travel and time associated with it, the ability the recruit stronger employees, and it discourages discrimination. On the other hand virtual teams may increase the generational gap if senior leaders aren’t proficient in technology and not all employees are suited to work in a virtual setting and may require extensive training.
Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., Carrillo, J. E., & Park, E. R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: key perspectives and trends.  Health affairs ,  24 (2), 499-505. This article looks at cultural competence and how can improve access to healthcare and reduce health disparities. It looks at how different stakeholders can use their influence to improve cultural competency. I appreciate how this article looks at the balance of access, quality, and cost of healthcare and how these can all be improved through cultural competence. For each shareholder group discussed, the article talks about how cultural competence would improve the facets of healthcare most prioritized by these groups and what their role can be in expanding and improving cultural competence to better address these priorities. The group that I am most interested in from this article is medical educators. Improving the cultural competence of the healthcare provider is incredibly important in reducing health disparities and increasing access to quality healthcare.
Biebel, E. P. (2012).  Compassion fatigue, burnout, and frustration in substance abuse counselors working with offenders in prisons versus community settings . (2012-99091-097).
Bobbio, A., & Manganelli, A. M. (2015). Antecedents of hospital nurses’ intention to leave the organization: A cross sectional survey.  International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52 (7), 1180-1192. This is the only article I could find in searching servant leadership and burnout. This cross-sectional study of two large Italian public hospitals sought to discover any relationships between intent to leave and the aspects of servant leadership. Of special interest to this paper is the cynicism factor mediated the effects of both “trust in the leader and servant leadership on intention to leave.” The authors also found that servant leadership and trust in the leader are positively associated. This relates to the trust aspect of the AWS. The major strengths of this paper are 1) its novel subject matter as there is little research done on servant leadership and 2) the implications for healthcare leaders if they are looking for a leadership model to increase buy-in and lower intent to leave.
Boden, M. T., Bernstein, A., Walser, R. D., Bui, L., Alvarez, J., Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2012), Changes in facets of mindfulness and posttraumatic stress disorder treatment outcome, Psychiatry Research, Volume 200, Issues 2–3,2012, Pages 609-613, This article dives deep into the effectiveness of using mindfulness to aid in the treatment of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Not only did mindfulness training show a decrease in their PTSD severity, but their depression severity as well. This is very exciting news for the field of mental health. This may also be a sign that mindfulness training can be used to improve mental states after a stressor has occurred. Mindfulness may not only be a preventative measure and defense for individuals to take advantage of, but can also be used after the exposure to a potentially stressful or traumatic event to help combat some of the negative consequences of such exposure.
Boin, A., & Hart, P. (2003). Public Leadership in Times of Crisis: Mission Impossible? Public Administration Review , 544-553. Because crisis can be the basis of reform, leaders need to be knowledgeable about the intricacies of long lasting reform and the balance between policy progress and crisis containment. Crisis and leadership go hand in hand, when times are uncertain leaders are looked to, to establish normalcy and safety. The “crisis reform thesis” advocates that a crisis provides an opportunity for reform which leaders can exploit to gain approval for differing policies and practices. The basis of this article is that “the requisites of crisis leadership are at odds with the requirements of effective reform”. When a crisis is used as the basis for reform, the policy often flounders and produces criticism for the leader in the long term. Reform needs to be founded on a base of supporters without skipping steps; this provides the leader with more credibility and results in the reform being more likely to meet objectives.  
Bolling, M., & Zettelmeyer, F. (2014). Big Data Doesn’t Make Decisions: Leaders Do . This article nearly perfectly addresses my desired chapter topic of how data science can be viewed as a leadership issue in an organization. First, six guiding principles were addressed on how senior leaders can “create organizational muscle in analytics.” I thought the final principle that all analytics should have a seat at the top table was most pertinent for my research. I have seen over and over that it is vital to empower leaders to have the capacity to promote data driven decision and analytics. By including a Chief Data Officer in C-level management, an organization clearly commits to pursuit of analytics and the priority using data analytics to address problems. This all draws back to empowerment and support of leaders in order to build a data-friendly organizational culture. I also thought it was important to address how an analytics leader may meet stiff resistance and how this can be overcome by slowly “weaving analytics into the fabric of the organization.” This article relates and aligns very closely with my research goals and will be thoroughly studied and utilized.
Boyce, B. (2013). Collective Impact: Aligning Organizational Efforts for Broader Social Change. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 113(4), 495-497. Retrieved from Across many public and private sectors, many health care professionals have common agendas that lead to mutually reinforcing activities; this alignment results in the collective impact framework and aims to make social changes that are longer lasting. This concept is now transitioning from the education realm to nutrition, including obesity and is proving to be the future of healthcare. For example, the United States Breastfeeding Committee (USBC) is currently using CI to create PSE changes to increase breastfeeding rates and eliminate disparities. In turn, funders now want to focus more on projects that achieve the most progress towards social problems instead of isolated and narrow focused. This supports more groups to collaborate on their shared agenda to progress in creating solutions to social issues/concerns. While this does remove siloes, it is important to ensure there are no conflicts of interest, mainly pertaining to the private sector and academics that have specific perspectives.
Brake, T., (2006) "Leading global virtual teams", Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 38 Issue: 3, pp.116-121, https:// Terence Brake’s article focuses on two primary challenges of virtual teams: isolation and confusion. Brake provided ten guidelines to overcome these two challenges and strategies to execute the guidelines. In regards to isolation, Brake recommended addressing challenges proactively; recognizing and valuing cultural differences; building trust; solving problems; and remaining people focused. He also recommends promoting clarity to overcome confusion. This can be done by staying focused, clarifying the roles and responsibilities of the team, maintaining predictability; communicating context; and encouraging precision.
Brennan, J. (2013). A foundation of wellness. Hospitals can play a leadership role in improving the health status of their employees and community. Healthcare Executive . May/June. 66-69. This article talks about a successful employee weight loss and fitness program that was initiated at a hospital. The idea was that the hospital was committed to community health and they wanted their employees to be living examples. This effort was fully supported by the president and CEO of Newark Beth Israel Medical Center showing program success with leadership support. They implemented the hospital’s health program to others in the community including schools, churches, and a garden to grow fresh vegetables for the community.
Brimmer, K. Nurse understaffing impacts quality of care, leads to increased infections. Healthcare Finance . Apr 2013. Nurse understaffing and fatigue adversely effects the quality of care, patient and employee satisfaction, and increases operational costs in hospitals. Fatigue is a major issue that effected a elf-reported 69% of nurses stating they had fatigue that made them raise concerns for doing their work appropriately. 65% stated they almost made an error due to their fatigue and 27% said they made an error due to fatigue. Working overtime is a greater risk factor for working while fatigued.
Brueller, D., & Carmeli, A. (2011). Linking capacities of high-quality relationships to team learning and performance in service organizations. Human Resource Management, 50(4), 455-477. doi:10.1002/hrm.20435 This article is different from the others in that it specifically denotes intrateam (team members, manager) and external (team and customers) high-quality relationships. A high-quality relationship is defined as “relational connections between two or more individuals that are marked by both positive structural features (emotional carrying capacity, connectivity, and tensility) and positive subjective experiences (vitality, mutuality, and positive regard)”. Intrateam high-quality relationships are related to psychological safety, which as we have seen facilitates team and individual learning. External high-quality relationships are less related to psychological safety, but still are directly related to team learning. In both instances, team learning is associated with better team performance.
Buscemi, J., Steglitz, J., & Spring, B. (December 01, 2012). The impact of team science collaborations in health care: a synopsis and comment on “Interprofessional collaboration: effects of practice-based interventions on professional practice and healthcare outcomes”.  Translational Behavioral Medicine : Practice, Policy, Research, 2,  4, 378-379. This article by Buscemi et al. is a response to an earlier study conducted by Zwarenstein et al. which examined team interactions between doctors and nurses and the benefit of that teamwork for patients. Buscemi et al. take this study further, comparing five additional papers with a stronger emphasis on collaboration amongst teams of health professionals. They determine that such teams can yield more positive patient outcomes and that interprofessional collaboration is most effective when all professionals treat each other’s opinions with respect and communicate well. Because these last two items are not always a given, the authors encourage evaluation and preparation for collaboration before the team is launched. Buscemi et al. point out that very few studies have been done on team science in healthcare and ends on a call to action to create additional tools to facilitate teamwork among health care professionals.
Cahill S, Singal R, Grasso C, King D, Mayer K, Baker K, et al. (2014) Do Ask, Do Tell: High Levels of Acceptability by Patients of Routine Collection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Four Diverse American Community Health Centers. PLoS ONE 9(9): e107104. Sexual orientation and gender identity data is not routinely collected in most health care settings. The absence of this data creates a void of evidence based information about the health status of LGBT individuals. The perception that asking these questions will be considered rude or invasive is often cited as justification for not collecting this data. This study was undertaken to explore the acceptability of the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity by patients in community health centers. Four health centers engaged in the study, two that serve a majority of LGBT patients and two that do not. The results of the study indicate a broad acceptance of sexual orientation and gender identity data collection in both LGBT centered health centers and those serving a majority of heterosexual and cisgender patients. In light of the study results, the authors encourage health care providers to implement the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data.
Calhoun JG, Vincent ET, Baker GR, Butler PW, Sinioris ME, Chen SL (2004). Competency identification and modeling in healthcare leadership. Retrieved from: This article focuses on identifying core competencies of healthcare leadership. The author does not expand on how to provide feedback, but this article can be helpful in providing background on what leaders in healthcare should be exemplifying. It may not directly impact the pressbook chapter but is good background reading.
Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., Quinn, R. E. (2003), Positive Organizational Scholarship Foundations of a New Discipline, Berrett-Koeler Publishers. Cameron is an expert in the field of Positive Organizational Scholarship, and it really shows in her writing here with her colleagues. This is another great start to learn more about POS. Cameron and her colleagues do a great job of exploring the origins of POS, and defining POS by explaining each of its components (positive, organizational, and scholarship) in depth. If you truly want to learn about POS Cameron’s work is a must read as she does such a great job of explaining what POS is and how it differs from that of the organizational scholarship of the past. This is an area of study and practice that is starting to gain more momentum and a something that could benefit any leader.
Cameron, K.S., Caza, A. (2004). Introduction: Contributions to the discipline of positive organizational scholarship. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6), 731-739. If you are truly looking to understand Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) or interested to learn more about the field as a whole this is a great place to start. Cameron and Caza do a great job introducing POS and how it differs from the organizational scholarship of the past. This is only one chapter of a much larger book that looks at many other aspects of POS. This chapter is very fitting for the first chapter of the book as it gives the reader an amazing introduction to the world of POS. Cameron and Caza do a great job of conveying the point of POS being about capitalizing on the aspects of organizations that allow them to flourish and thrive rather than simply focusing on minimizing the negative aspects of organizations.
Capgemini. (2012). The Deciding Factor: Big Data & Decision Making . This source provides extremely useful data and numbers to support the claims made by other literature sources. The Economist Intelligence Unit surveyed 607 executives globally to ascertain their opinions on big-data and decision making. This resulted in interesting findings and useful quantitative information. Almost 55% of executives say that big-data management is not viewed strategically in their organization. This is important to note in the way an organization builds a culture to support big data usage. About 56% of survey respondents related the largest impediment to big-data usage and data driven decision making that data often occurs in silos where they are inaccessible across organizations. Again, we come back to the ideals and benefits of data transparency to support and bolster the trust of an organization in using big-data to drive decisions. This paper will prove extremely useful for visualizations and quantitative support towards many of the topics previously covered.
Carmeli, A., & Gittell, J. H. (2009). High-quality relationships, psychological safety, and learning from failures in work organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(6), 709-729. doi:10.1002/job.565 This paper focuses on the relationship between psychological safety, high quality relationships, and learning from failure in organizations. Success in improving processes and outcomes in born in learning from experiences and failures. It introduces a new topic of relational coordination defined as ‘‘a mutually reinforcing process of interaction between communication and relationships carried out for the purpose of task integration’’ as a specific manifestation of high-quality relationships. The specific dimensions of relational coordination - shared goals, shares knowledge, and mutual respect - foster psychological safety and in turn enable organizational members to engage in learning from failures. This paper is unique in that it specifically discusses the role of psychological safety in learning from failures.
Carmeli, A., Brueller, D., & Dutton, J. E. (2009). Learning behaviours in the workplace: The role of high-quality interpersonal relationships and psychological safety. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 26(1), 81-98. doi:10.1002/sres.932 Organizational learning is important in improving all-around performance, yet is relational and depends on specific processes, interactions, and needs. Learning is key to improvement and high quality organizations. Learning behaviors such as seeking new information, speaking up, testing the validity of work assumptions, and devoting time to figure out ways to improve work processes are a few ways by which knowledge is acquired, shared and combined. As we have seen before, if done in the wrong context or with altered perceptions of safety these key actions can come across as intrusive or incompetent. The key principle of psychological safety is that people can be “comfortable being themselves” and “feel able to show and employ one’s self without fear of negative consequences to self-image, status or career”. It is interesting that interpersonal relationship are positively related to error rates, but this is because good quality relationships encourages errors to be reported (not that these teams actually cause more errors). Ultimately this paper surmises that high quality relationships are associated with psychological safety which is in turn related to higher levels of learning behaviors. It touches on the key topics of high quality relationships: emotional carrying capacity, tensility, connectivity, positive regard, and mutuality.
Carmeli, A., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Ziv, E. (2010). Inclusive Leadership and Employee Involvement in Creative Tasks in the Workplace: The Mediating Role of Psychological Safety. Creativity Research Journal, 22(3), 250-260. doi:10.1080/10400419.2010.504654 This study from the University of Nebraska Department of Psychology focuses on the link between leadership inclusiveness and employee creativity, specifically focusing on the employee willingness to exert effort and be involved in the behaviors that lead to creative production through the perceptions of psychological safety. A unique distinction is that psychological safety and trust are different. Psychological safety focuses on the self in short timeframe, whereas trust focuses on another individual over a wider temporal range. Leaders who exhibit inclusiveness encourage others to bring up new ideas and communicate freely without the fear of negative consequences of such behavior. Employee creativity has been defined as “production of ideas, products, or procedures that are novel or original, and potentially useful to the employing organization.” This inherently introduces novelty and increases uncertainty. This study on 150 individuals indeed found that leadership inclusiveness was positively linked to psychological safety, which in turn allowed enhanced employee creativity.
Carravallah, L. A., Reynolds, L. A., & Woolford, S. J. (2017). Lessons for Physicians from Flint’s Water Crisis. AMA Journal of Ethics , 19. In a time of crisis the general population looks towards their appointed leaders as guides and for information, when the flint water crisis was finally discovered those illusions of help and direction from their leaders was shattered and the community left with broken trust. The signs of water pollution was being seen in the clinics, with a fourfold increase in legionnaires’ disease along with rashes and hair falling out associated with lead poisoning. What is described as a “chance congruence” eventually occurred when a pediatrician with a background in public and environmental health was informed of the lack of corrosion correction in the municipal water and a suggestion to look into the blood lead levels. This discovery enabled physicians to issue a warning to the community and help lead the effort in correcting the epidemic that was spreading throughout these residents. Physicians, and therefore patients, would benefit from additional formal education on interdisciplinary subjects such as environmental health hazards in order to recognize these types of cases more quickly, in addition to courses in leadership for patient advocacy.  
Castel, E. S., Ginsburg, L. R., Zaheer, S., & Tamim, H. (2015). Understanding nurses’ and physicians’ fear of repercussions for reporting errors: clinician characteristics, organization demographics, or leadership factors? BMC Health Services Research, 15, 326. This is a useful article in definitely psychological safety and how the importance of having a safe environment can have on health care professionals and on patient safety as well. This source provides a cross sectional analysis on 2.319 nurses and 386 physicians; they reveal that effective organizational management and leadership strategies will vary across all heath care settings; there is not a one size fits all approach.
Chappell, R. W. (2004). Secrets of a Chief Medical Officer. Physician Executive Journal, 30-32. Lessons from the perspective of a CMO: The first piece of advice is to tell no lies. Chief Medical Officers have many conversations every day, displaying integrity and telling the truth will keep them in their job. Second, relativity matters. Time references used by physicians and administrators are very different, while physicians make many decisions daily, administrative decisions take much longer. Third, be principled but not inflexible, compromises and negotiations are important parts of the CMOs job. Fourth, go to the problem and make your own assessments. Number five, never forget why you are there, CMOs get their position because they have a strong clinical background and they have “earned” their spot in the administration. Six, leadership delivers ROI, key medical staff members and CMOs need to develop their leadership skills to achieve goals and objectives. Seven, be a life-long learner because you cannot go further than what you know. Eight, always ask for help. Nine, don’t go to a gunfight with a knife. Sometimes, conflict in inevitable and CMOs need to be prepared to handle it.
Chin, M. H., Clarke, A. R., Nocon, R. S., Casey, A. A., Goddu, A. P., Keesecker, N. M., & Cook, S. C. (2012). A roadmap and best practices for organizations to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.  Journal of general internal medicine ,  27 (8), 992-1000. This article provided actionable steps for organizations to improve how they are providing healthcare services to diverse communities. The authors performed an extensive review of the literature to find the best practices in development and implementation of diversity policies and procedures to address health disparities in the United States. They emphasized the importance of critically evaluating the organization and determining where disparities exist, as you can’t solve a problem you don’t know that you have. The authors then discussed incorporating elimination of disparities into quality improvements, designing interventions to eliminate disparities, implementation and evaluation of diversity promoting policies, and designing policies with foresight to ensure longevity. This article provides individuals in healthcare leadership with the tools that they need to garner support for diversity/cultural competency policies and recommendations for successfully implementing diversity initiatives.
Clarke, N. (2007) Developing emotional intelligence through workplace learning: Findings from a case study in healthcare, Human Resource Development International, 9:4, 447-465, DOI: 10.1080/13678860601032585 This case study provided an excellent definition for what emotional intelligence is. One of the conclusions that stood out was the idea that emotional abilities are very tacit in nature. This means that it is hard to teach in a traditional sense. One way to potentially facilitate such learning would be to strengthen social structures. This would allow for more opportunity for colleagues to share emotional knowledge, and reflect on emotional topics. The article also covers a topic that we discussed in class of emotional safety. This is vital if emotional learning is to take place in the workplace. By promoting an emotionally safe environment it will allow for staff to feel safe discussing and exploring the emotional aspects of the job. In an organization that focuses on fixing weaknesses it may be intimidating or unsafe to explore such emotions and ideas. Thus promoting emotional safety in a healthcare setting can go a long way toward facilitating the development of emotional intelligence. Although this article cites many great sources the case study itself is a little weak, and would benefit from much more research and larger sample size. However, it offers a lot of valuable information from other sources that make it a valuable inclusion into the chapter.
Clough, Jeanette. “Collaboration between Physicians and Nurses: Essential to Patient Safety.” CRICO, May 2008, Looking at how these teams share leadership can determine whether or not a team is performing its best. The complexities of the health care setting can cause frustration, misunderstandings, and miscommunications which ultimately results in tension among a treating team. This tension creates a risky environment that is more susceptible to error
Codier, E., Muneno, L., & Freitas, E. (May 01, 2011). Emotional intelligence abilities in oncology and palliative care. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 13, 3, 183-188. This article does a great job looking at emotional intelligence through the lens of a nurse. One point that it brings up is that the intelligence of a nurse is oftentimes measured by a traditional sense of the word, but much of what determines the quality or effectiveness has to do with non-traditional measures of intelligence (i.e. emotional intelligence). This is a very valid point that is seen every day. For example, the emphasis on coursework and GPA when admitting applicants into nursing school. The article goes on to define emotional intelligence, based on four core abilities, and explains all of these abilities in detail through the lens of a nurse. This offers incredible insight into such an essential part of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB), through the lens and the experiences of the staff that will be discussed in this paper. This article explains a very vital aspect of nursing, and POB in easy to read language as to promote great understanding for the reader.
Cohen, J. J., Gabriel, B. A., & Terrell, C. (2002). The case for diversity in the health care workforce.  Health affairs ,  21 (5), 90-102. This article focuses on how cultural competence is necessary to improve health care in the United States and to diversify the work force. It focuses on how cultural competence can reduce health inequities and improve access to health care. In the work force it focuses on how cultural competence can not only improve work force diversity but increase the number of under-represented minorities in positions of leadership in the health care sector.
Collective Impact Forum. (n.d.). Collective Impact Principles of Practice. Retrieved from Impact Principles of Practice.pdf Collective Impact has five guiding principles but there is more needed to effective population level changes. One being that the project focuses on equity, including class and race. While equality is the aim, the process needs to go one step further and think in terms of equity. While CI is normally aimed for the top levels of the organizations involved, this article realizes that the community members need to be engaged for the most impact. This thought process is normally overlooked but for the community to feel they are fully heard it is critical for participation and ownership. Also, there is a benefit to have cross-sector partners so that viewpoints are represented, specifically non-profits and funders. Rather than viewing CI as a solution, the CI Forum encourages viewing CI as a “collaborative problem-solving process (p.2).” Finally, leadership is a critical point that is not initially addressed in the CI framework. Not only does the leader have to facilitate and manage, they also must convey a shared focus. This can be difficult among all participants and organizations, but their commitment to transformational change can show through to keep everyone aligned.
Columbus Public Health. (2018). Opiate crisis quarterly report: Quarter 4 (oct-dec), 2017 franklin county, ohio.
Combs, W., & Peacocke, S. (2007). Leading Virtual Teams. T+D, 61(2), 27-28. Wendy Combs and Stephanie Peacocke’s article in the February 2007 issue of T+D focused on nine tips that they believe are important when leading virtual teams. These nine tips include creating a virtual team charter; creating meeting blackout dates; reviewing communication etiquette; seeking out team member input; creating team profiles; embracing diversity; rewarding positive team behavior; evaluating team performance; and watching for conflict. It will be useful when discussing strategies for leading effective virtual teams.
Conduct patient safety leadership walkrounds™ (2018). Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Retrieved from The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) is a well-known and well-respected organization in the healthcare industry. IHI discusses a method for leadership engagement in producing a culture of safety, which they call leadership walkrounds TM. Leadership walkrounds TM provide an opportunity for leaders to directly interact with frontline staff to discuss important safety topics. During walkrounds TM hospital executives should weekly visit patient units to directly speak with staff members about safety concerns. In addition to walkrounds TM, regularly scheduled safety briefings should be conducted. During conversations with executives, any identified issues should be discussed, however the staff member who identified the issue should remain anonymous. This is a strong source of information due to the reputable organization, the input from healthcare leaders throughout the country, and the tangible examples provided.
Conger, J. & Toegel, G. (2010).  Action learning and multi-rater feedback as leadership development interventions: Popular but poorly deployed. This article focuses on action learning and multi-source feedback.  It cites, that while extremely popular, are both perhaps poorly implemented.  The key point is the need for more attention to the implementation of these.  This could likely be resourceful for the chapter.
Coombs, T. W. (2008). Situational Theory of Crisis: Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Corporate Reputation . In C. E. Carroll, Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation (pp. 262-278). ProQuest Ebook Central. When disaster strikes the first thought and action is towards public safety, when the acute symptoms of a catastrophe are averted and normalcy is tentatively achieved the damage control for reputations is the next task to tackle. The thought is that if good crisis communication occurs during the disaster, then it will be easier in the aftermath to come out with a more reputable character than if crisis communication is not adequately used. Crisis communication is the act of managing information and meaning, this includes the endeavor to manage perceptions of the disaster and the act of disseminating information to the public. Due to the unorganized nature of a crisis, the means by which communication is propagated differs per instance. There are different variables that can be applied to the eminent crisis which will better aid efforts in determining how to communicate effectively while keeping reputations  intact.
Cordova, R. D., Beaudin, C. L., & Iwanabe, K. F. (2010). Addressing diversity and moving toward equity in hospital care.  Frontiers of health services management ,  26 (3), 19. This article focused on the critical role that leadership plays in addressing diversity and equity in the United States healthcare system. It highlighted that the changing population demographics of the country require healthcare organizations to adjust both policies and procedures to meet the needs of the communities they serve. The article looked at examples in pediatric hospitals across the country where hospital leadership enacted change to improve the cultural competency of its workforce through policy change. This article is particularly helpful for my chapter as it outlines some important steps that healthcare leaders need to make if they want to successfully improve their organization’s diversity policies and procedures. These steps include things like internally auditing existing diversity programs and their successes and failures, attributing appropriate funding and resources toward diversity initiatives, effectively communicating their vision to the workforce, and actively participating in change initiatives to demonstrate their commitment to change.
Cors, W. K. (2009). The Chief Medical Officer: A Critical Success Factor.  Physician Executive Journal, 60-62. This article focuses on what makes a respected and effective CMO. Chief Medical Officers are clinicians but they also have training in business, management and leadership. They are able to bridge the gap between management and the clinical side, as well as cost and quality. They must be credible to both sides, they help medical staff carry out their responsibilities, as well as implement new models that make the clinical and hospital side more successful. CMOs are charged with promoting a safe organization with high-reliability patient care. Lastly, they must have the right personality characteristics to be successful in their position.
Creating and sustaining a culture of safety (2004). National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved from The National Center for Biotechnology Information published this article in 2004, which identifies ways in which to promote a culture of safety in healthcare. While, there are more up to date sources on the topic, this article provides strong basis from which to implement practices for a culture of safety. In conjunction with other articles discussed in this annotated bibliography, the author identifies that a culture of safety must include frontline workers, must empower staff to be vocal when they notice safety concerns, and safety must be an organizational wide effort.
Dai, G., De Meuse, K. P., & Peterson, C. (2010).  Impact of Multi-Source Feedback on Leadership Competency Development: A Longitudinal Field Study.  Retrieved from: This article evaluates the impact of multi-source feedback.  While this type of feedback is often favorably viewed and stated to be used in 90% of Fortune 1000 companies in the US and 85% in Australia's top 500 corporations, it is stated that improvement is not also uniform and may have a negative effect on importance.  This article may be beneficial for the chapter.
D'Aunno, T. (2006). The role of organization and management in substance abuse treatment: Review and roadmap.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31 (3), 221-233. 10.1016/j.jsat.2006.06.016 In order to stimulate research that could lead to improving the national substance use treatment network, D’Aunno briefly summarized the current state of organization and management in substance addiction treatment. The author argues that best practices are commonly not used in substance abuse treatment centers because clients are not in position to demand for them. Further, since treatment providers often use the practices they prefer or see fit, managers cannot expect for all staff members to adopt a current best practice merely because they show efficacy. D’Aunno also provided national data corroborating other research showing high levels of turnover among substance use treatment providers. Most notably, the author reported that managerial attitude is an important factor in terms of personal connectedness: unit directors who were well-connected to their immediate community, state, and profession were more likely to provide HIV prevention services, collaborate with other treatment centers, and stay in business.
Day, D. V. (2000). Leadership development: A review in context.  Retrieved from: This review examines the field of leadership development through three contextual lenses.  Specific practices that are reviewed include 360-degree feedback and executive coaching, mentoring and networking, and job assignments and action learning. The authors comment on the important distinction between leader development and leadership development. Use of 360-deree feedback is valuable in both. While this is an interesting review article, contribution to the pressbook chapter on feedback will be limited.
Deangelis, T. (2016, September). Preventing medical errors. Retrieved from Helpful source for statistics on medical errors in our society. Number of medical errors is a rough estimate due to the broad range of medical errors that can occur; ranging from a breakdown in communication among a treating team to issues with technology design
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2000). A model of burnout and life satisfaction amongst nurses. 32(2) 454-464. Results show that there are strong effects of job demands and resources on exhaustion and disengagement. Job demands are defined as working conditions that have the potential to induce stress reactions when personal limits and abilities are overwhelmed. Work load and time pressures were identified as the main stressors for nurses. Job resources are the other category explained. They are job conditions that may induce stress reactions. These mostly involve performance feedback and task variety, participation in decision making social support, and financial rewards. Exhaustion from job demands and disengagement from lack of job resources combine to create a total score of life satisfaction based on these aspects of demands and resources together for one total score. Supervisors should play a key role in creating a healthy work environment. A joint role in decision making may help in order to increase engagement.
Derue, D., Wellman, N. (2009).  Developing leaders via experience: The role of developmental challenge, learning orientation, and feedback availability.  Retrieved from: The authors develop a series of hypotheses linking leadership skill development to various features of the experience, person, and context (feedback).  Overall, the results of the study suggest that access to feedback can offset the diminishing returns associated with high levels of developmental challenge.
Dierendonch, D. V., Haynes, C., Borril,l C., & Stride, C. (1982).  Effects of upward feedback on leadership behavior toward subordinates.  Retrieved from: The purpose of this article was to investigate the influence of participating in an upward feedback program on leadership behavior, both as indicated by self-ratings and subordinates’ ratings.  The results demonstrated three key findings in that managers lack insight into the real impact of their behavior, only a small positive effect found on the upward feedback program on leadership behavior, and the managers’ self-ratings of presenting feedback, fairness, and integrity decreased over the two measured time points.
Diversity. (2018). Retrieved from: This source was utilized for the Merriam Webster definition of diversity.
Doucet O, Poitras J, Chenevert D. The Impacts of Leadership on Workplace Conflicts. International Journal of Conflict Management. 2009;20(4):340-354. This article discusses how a manager’s leadership style may influence both the level and the nature of workplace conflicts. The authors wanted to study how the transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles help influence employees’ awareness of workplace conflicts. This study describes that this is an examining effort into understanding the role of a manager’s leadership style with respect to conflicts. The results of this study indicate that both cognitive and relational conflicts were influenced by only 2 out of 8 leadership dimensions. The study included four leadership dimensions from the transformational leadership theory, three leadership dimensions from the transactional leadership style, and one dimension from the laissez-faire style. Another observation that this study makes is that this study makes is that both cognitive and relational conflicts do not derive from the same mechanisms and are not affected by the same leadership dimensions. I feel this study is good for my chapter because it analyzes the different types of leadership theories and how they impact both cognitive and relational conflicts.
Duckworth, A. (2016), GRIT: The Power of Passion and Perseverance . Scribner. This book took the world by storm, and after reading the book it is easy to see why. Duckworth does a great job of not only incorporating her research about grit into the book, but the narratives and research of many other grit paragons. For the sake of this book Duckworth defines grit as passion and perseverance toward long-term goals. Duckworth does a great job of writing so that the reader is engaged and able to easily understand the information that she is trying to convey. If one is looking to better understand grit and how they might develop grit within themselves as a leader or within their teams this is a must read.
Earley, P. C.  (1986).  Trust, Perceived Importance of Praise and Criticism, and Work Performance: An Examination of Feedback in the United States and England.  Retrieved from: Earley discusses two studies which had examined the usefulness of performance feedback.  One of the evaluated studies looked at American and English workers’ behaviors and assessed the importance of praise or criticism concerning work performance.  The second examined the relations among a worker’s trust in a supervisor, perceived importance of praise and criticism, the amount of praise/criticism received, and their performance.  
Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350. doi:10.2307/2666999 This paper is more background on the effects of psychological safety on team learning. What I found most interesting and unique about this paper was the field study that looked into the connection between psychological safety, team learning behavior, team efficacy, and team performance.
Edmondson, A. C. (2003). Speaking Up in the Operating Room: How Team Leaders Promote Learning in Interdisciplinary Action Teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1419-1452. doi:10.1111/1467-6486.00386 This paper differs from others in the field in that it focuses on interdisciplinary teams engaged in fast paced action tasks, not tasks of routine production. Highly actionable tasks are often uncertain and fast paced and situations easily affected by team members ability to speak out with observations, suggestions, and questions. It was shown that team leader coaching, ease of speaking out, and boundary spanning are associated with successful outcomes. This is especially in a medical team where there are high demands for ongoing learning and problem solving. In such teams there is typically a large power gap between leaders and members which can make speaking out and boundary spanning all the more difficult, which can in turn negatively affect outcomes. It is ultimately up to the leader (who hold the most power) to minimize the silencing effects that this power holds as well as make a compelling reason to speak out/actively seeking the inout of others.
Edmondson, A. C. (2004). Learning from failure in health care: frequent opportunities, pervasive barriers.Quality and Safety in Health Care,13(Suppl_2), Ii3-Ii9. doi:10.1136/qhc.13.suppl_2.ii3 I really like this article because it reinforces the need for leadership intervention in health care settings to help motivate change. This call for change includes creating an environment of psychological safety that encourages open reporting, active questioning, and sharing of concern. This will be a helpful article as it also includes a case study on how one hospital’s organizational learning initiative suggests that leaders can empower and support team learning. The case study also identifies potential hazards that when removed, can reduce threat to patient safety. They also identify certain barriers that may cause medical errors in hospitals such as the climate culture does not promote speaking up and correcting human error before patients are harmed.
Edmondson, A. C. (2008). Managing the Risk of Learning: Psychological Safety in Work Teams. International Handbook of Organizational Teamwork and Cooperative Working, 255-275. doi:10.1002/9780470696712.ch13 The multiple stated functions of this paper are to: describe interpersonal risks that can inhibit collective learning, distinguish psychological safety from trust, and explain why psychological safety mitigates interpersonal risks and facilitates a structured learning process in teams. A model is developed to help leaders manage the risks of learning on their teams. People are described as “impression managers”, meaning that they are reluctant to engage in behaviors that could threaten the image others hold of them. Action in these uncertain situations requires active learning behavior, questioning, experimenting, seeking help, and feedback. In the presences of other with more perceived power, subordinates can fear being seen as ignorant, incompetent, negative, or disruptive if they speak out. This leads to a pattern of behavior. Creating a psychologically safe environment can mitigate these negative perceptions and change behavior to more “positive”, leading to effective learning, team processes, experimentation and discussion of errors. Leaders are key in manufacturing psychological safety. Some characteristics of leaders that are important are: accessibility, acknowledging fallibility, still maintaining accountability, and setting goals.
Edmonson, A. (2018). Why Is Psychological Safety So Important in Health Care? Retrieved from Edmondson-Why-Is-Psychological-Safety-So-Important-in-Health-Care.aspx In this short video clip of Amy Edmonson published by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Edmonson discusses the importance of psychological safety in the health care environment. She uses the intensive care unit as an example to explore the 4 crucial outcomes of psychological safety in the work place. These include learning, risk management, innovation, and job satisfaction/job meaning.
Edwards, M. R., & Ewen, A. J. (1996). 360‐degree feedback: Royal fail or holy grail? Career Development International, 1 (3), 28-31. Retrieved from: Another article that discusses the pros and cons of the 360-degree feedback tool. It is more of a review about where it is used successfully and areas where it may not be the best fit. This article may be a helpful jumping off point but probably will not add much more substance to the pressbook chapter.
Elman, B. D., & Dowd, E. T. (1997). Correlates of burnout in inpatient substance abuse treatment therapists.  Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 17 (2), 56.
Eriksson, K., & McConnell, A. (2017). Contingency planning for crisis management: Recipe for success or political fantasy? Policy and society , 89-99. This article goes over contingency planning and the role it has to plan for and circumvent a crisis, allocating resources and responsibilities before being in the middle of a disaster. This does not ensure that an immaculate execution during the acute stage of the crisis will take place, considering that not every factor can be accounted for such as: Leadership style, proclivity to accept help, individuals involved and their temperament, among other unaccounted factors. There is evidence to suggest that planning for a crisis does hold an important role in crisis resolution by providing direction and a sense of familiarity in the individuals involved, it does not mean that the crisis will go remotely as planned or well. It is important to remember that flexibility and improvisation is an important part of any disaster plan, as much as following the plan is reassuring there is a place for creativity. 
Etowa, J., & Debs-Ivall, S. (2017). LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TO ETHNO-CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN HEALTHCARE.  Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research ,  11 (4). This study looked at the perceptions of Canadian white nurses on diversity in their respective workplace. It provided some very interesting perspective on how these individuals view diversity and how they see leadership promoting or suppressing it. The nurses interviewed highlighted things that their organizations were doing right and wrong; their responses were consistent with what has been shown in the literature. Some highlights from the study included: a feeling that diversity regarding patient care was the focus in the organization(s) but less attention was paid to diversity relations in the workforce; training in diversity often centered on clinically involved staff and not managerial/leadership positions leading to a lack of leadership ability to deal with culture-related conflict; the desire for more (and continual) training in diversity in the workplace; and the need for clear organizational policies directly related to diversity instead of using generic workplace respect policies applied to diversity/cultural conflicts. This was a valuable study as it provider followers’ perspectives on leadership and how it relates to diversity.
Feedback is good for your health. (2017, September 26). Retrieved from This easy to read article discusses a side of feedback that so far none of the other articles have discussed - the why . Riegel quotes a leadership expert saying, “feedback is the breakfast of champions”. She goes on to explain some of the positive benefits of feedback on one’s health such as decreased burnout, decreased rates of depression, improved longevity and so on. She also makes note that there is a good way to go about providing feedback and links to other helpful articles (also in this bibliography). She writes about creating a feedback culture so that feedback provision is routine and anticipated and also promotes feedback among team members, not just vertically.
Feiger, S. M., & Schmitt, M. H. (1979). Collegiality in interdisciplinary health teams: Its measurement and its effects. Social Science & Medicine. Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, 13(2), 217-229. doi:10.1016/0160-7979(79)90031-6 This is an interesting study that shows the effect of collegiality and a safe working environment on healthcare teams. In this study 4 different multidisciplinary healthcare teams were formed and allowed to work as normal. Their interactions over 1 year were graded according to a standard collegiality and communication model. This was compared to the patient outcomes of each team. How the teams ranked with respect to the collegiality and communication model exactly matched the patient outcome rank.
Flood, J., Minkler, M., Hennessey Lavery, S., Estrada, J., & Falbe, J. (2015). The Collective Impact Model and Its Potential for Health Promotion: Overview and Case Study of a Healthy Retail Initiative in San Francisco. Health Education & Behavior, 42(5), 654-668. Retrieved from Health promotion has been finding success among collaborative models for some time, but the most developed in terms of track-record and other things is the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). This theory helps support the Collective Impact framework, but there has not been significant research conducted over the success of the initiative. Like Collective Impact, CCAT promote collaboration to sustain change across multiple sectors while removing silos and duplication of efforts. On main difference is that CCAT focuses on community member involvement instead of CI model of non-profits. CCAT also focuses on sustainability in regards to PSE change interventions and advocacy. The case study of Tenderloin Healthy Corner Store Coalition, explained how CI was not planned, but the sense of urgency aligned with the framework. As most would expect, they still encountered issues with funding and shifting mindsets, especially business owners. With some tweaking, overall they found that Ci can be used for health education and promotion programs.
Frazier, M. L., Fainshmidt, S., Klinger, R. L., Pezeshkan, A., & Vracheva, V. (2016, October 14). Psychological Safety: A Meta‐Analytic Review and Extension. Retrieved February 28, 2018, from This is a meta-analysis of 136 studies representing approximately 22,000 individuals and 5,000 groups. It is one of the more up to date articles as it was published in 2017. It serves to answer 4 questions. It first seeks to find the antecedents of psychological safety. Second it evaluates how psychological safety accounts for variance in task performance and organizational behaviors in the setting of other possible leadership confounders. It then looks into the contingencies and culture that affect psychological safety. Lastly, effect sizes and antecedents of outcomes are compared. This study is comprehensive and quantitative. The main traits that were found were proactive personality, learning orientation, and emotional stability. There were found to be strong relationships between psychological safety and autonomy, interdependence, supportive work context, role clarity, leader relations, work engagement, task performance, commitment, and satisfaction.
Freshman, B., Rubino, L., & Chassiakos, Y. R. (2010). Collaboration across the disciplines in health care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. This chapter is a useful introduction into the utility of multidisciplinary teams as the primary vehicle to deliver healthcare today. It also defines team members and their specific functions within the team. It then gives key points for selecting future team members and guiding future team functions/goals. It shows that there are many more members to a healthcare team than just the physicians and that providing advanced, high quality care in today’s technologically advanced world can be very complex and requires a lot of data gathering, processing, and communication between numerous entities. This can make effective teaming more difficult. Each individual member is generally thoroughly experienced in their particular field, but the combining that is needed to make multidisciplinary teams work well can be challenging. It is important to look at the ultimate desired product and what is needed from each member to make that a reality. The article lists 7 key functions that must be carried out by any effective team and discusses each in depth. It then lists 4 key characteristics of successful healthcare teams of the future as defined by the Committee on Quality Health Care in America.
Gadlin, H., Bennett, L. M., Levine-Finley, S. (2010) Collaboration & Team Science: A Field Guide . National Institute of Health. The National Institute of Health’s 2010 Field Guide to team science is a blueprint for collaboration between scientific researchers. The guide defines team science as “as a collaborative and often cross-disciplinary approach to scientific inquiry that draws researchers who otherwise work independently or as coinvestigators on smaller-scale projects into collaborative centers and groups.” The guide covers other important topics such as how to identify a successful team, how to prepare a group for team science, and how to tell when the team science is working. The authors also spend significant time describing how to navigate and leverage networks and systems to be able to work across borders, whether they are spatial or temporal.
Galinsky, E., Weisberg, A. (2014). How One Company Contained Healthcare Costs and Boosted Morale. Harvard Business Review . Supporting the whole employee from finances, physical health, and career development. This article focuses on how an employee wellness program can be effective. The program has each employee fill out a health assessment, but also has each employee do a one on one session to set three goals for themselves that are out of five dimensions (career development, work-life fit, financial security, community involvement and physical health.) The article states that when employees are only in a program for monetary benefits, this is not successful in the long run. The company has maintained costs at a steady rate, despite inflation and have also maintained a very low turnover rate. They have also accomplished a high employee engagement rate. Four things to keep in mind when creating a well-being strategy include: Leading with values (start at the top – lead by example), keep it convenient (on site clinic with physician’s assistant has saved paid time off and reduction of copayments and medical savings for the company), Make it personal (focus on employee well-being and not just on physical health and make it meaningful to the employee), Share success stories and make it communal (highlight stories and make them accessible to others.)
Gandhi, T.K. (2018 February 8). Leadership and vision for a culture of safety. NEJM Catalyst. Retrieved from Dr. Tejal Gandhi of the IHI discusses the role of healthcare leaders in creating a culture of safety. Dr. Gandhi provides a clear definition of a culture of safety, which includes a culture in which: staff members are aware of risk, safety events and interventions avoid blame, safety events are regularly reported, safety is a multidisciplinary approach, and resources are provided to address safety. Dr. Gandhi reports, however, that surveys demonstrate that staff members fear reporting safety occurrences for fear of negative repercussions. Similar to other articles discussed here, Dr. Gandhi reports the importance of: board member engagement, interdisciplinary trust, just culture, and transparency.
Garman, A. N., Tyler, L. J., & Darnall, J. S. (2004). Development and Validation of a 360-degree-feedback Instrument for Healthcare Administrators. Journal of Healthcare Management, 49 (5), 307-321. Retrieved from: In the same era of the newly introduced 360-degree feedback tool, the authors of this study felt that because it was developed in the business world, that it was not as easily extrapolated to leaders in healthcare. The authors modeled a healthcare specific framework to include 26 competencies and ultimately 128 items on the feedback tool. One of the most interesting things about this article is that the authors sought feedback from leaders within healthcare to develop the feedback tool They then piloted the feedback tool twice and found that it was valid, reliable and helpful in assessing effectiveness of leadership for developmental purposes. This article is helpful because it discusses the 360-degree tool in the context of healthcare which I think is important for the pressbook chapter.
Gilbody, S. (2006). Can we improve the morale of staff working in psychiatric units? A systematic review. Journal of Mental Health . 15(1): 7-17. Poor staff morale negatively effects patient care and is uneconomical. Interesting data studies including sick days taken, patient length of stay, etc. Economic factors include sick days taken and staff retention. Different interventions attempted to make more positive work environment. Some interventions include: social support systems, improved managerial supervision, stress management courses. The challenge is to maintain morale, not just have an increase while interventions are occurring. Some challenges of maintenance include low managerial support and inability of staff to attend interventions. Healthcare is increasingly becoming more of a “luxury” service and maintaining high degrees of patient satisfaction requires a lot of mental and physical energy. This will only continue to put stresses on staff and ways of combatting this must be formulated. Some potentially successful strategies include enrichment of clinical skills and increased psychologic support.
Gregg, M (2013 October 24). Creating a culture of improving safety, Hospitals and Health Networks. Retrieved from In this article Dr. Mary Gregg discusses the many barriers to creating a culture of safety (such as high demands on physicians) as well as discusses communication strategies to overcome these barriers. As discussed in other articles, Dr. Gregg encourages a “just environment” (Gregg 2013), in which blame and punishment are avoided after safety events. Additionally, she recommends a strong reporting system for safety incidences. She also emphasizes the importance of learning from safety incidences reported as well as documenting “near misses” (Gregg 2013), which are circumstances in which a negative safety event could have happened but were avoided. As is a theme in many other articles, Dr. Gregg encourages transparency in safety data and initiatives.
Groves, P., Kayyali, B., Knott, D., & Kuiken, S. Van. (2013). The “big data”revolution in healthcare. McKinsey Quarterly , (January), 22. Retrieved from The healthcare industry has been resistant to move towards the big data culture that has revolutionized many other industries. This is due to inherent challenges in securing privacy and sharing information across the diverse players. However, this new era is gaining momentum and healthcare stakeholders can remain successful in this new market if they promote these ideals. This paper serves as a call to action by enlisting guiding principles that are applicable to advance the big-data agenda. Again, the ideals of transparency are promoted, in this case they are described as a vital way to create a culture with openness and trust. One initiative I particularly found interesting was, “setting a top-down vision and stimulating creation of bottom up innovation”. In this ideal, leaders are motivated to empower others to lead on big-data initiatives by creating an atmosphere that supports these goals. I also like the idea that leaders should set tiered goals of short, medium and long-term “horizons”. This is a tangible way that a leader can effectively drive big-data initiatives.
Guerrero, E. G., & Kim, A. (2013). Organizational structure, leadership and readiness for change and the implementation of organizational cultural competence in addiction health services.  Evaluation and Program Planning, 40 , 74-81. 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2013.05.002 Several constructs were measured in 122 predominantly Latino and African American serving addiction healthcare organizations to find correlations with cultural competency. Among the variables measured was leadership, measured in the study by validated items assessing transformational and transactional styles. Clinical supervisors answered the nine-item leadership questionnaire, among other items, as a rating of their program directors, and higher scores signified higher levels of these two types of leadership. The analysis showed that leadership capacity was positively associated with outreach to minority communities (p < .01) and development of diverse staff (p < .05). Further analysis showed that directorial leadership had the second largest effect among the significant factors in the model ( in predicting cultural competency.
Guinn, K. A. (1996). Assessment techniques for top executives. Career Development International, 1 (3), 9-14. Retrieved from: A little older than some of the other articles, this review article discusses different techniques that leaders can use to assess their employees and provide feedback to them. The author provides examples of different types of feedback approach to use according to not only corporate culture but also business strategy. I think this will be a valuable resource for the pressbook chapter, but it is similar to some of the other articles in that it targets corporate leaders, not healthcare leaders.
Guttman, H. The Leader’s Role in Conflict Management. Leader to Leader. 2004;31:48-53. This article discusses how leaders can serve as role models in managing conflicts. The author mentions that when there is a discussion about leadership, many traits and behaviors are bought to light except one; the ability to manage conflict. Yet leaders spend approximately 24% of their time at work managing conflicts. The author discusses why this is the case and then begins to describe effective conflict management styles that leaders need to learn or possess. The article describes different ways to handle conflicts and behaviors that would distinguish leaders who are effect conflict managers. I feel that this article an excellent source for my chapter because it addresses how leaders can be effective at conflict management and bring conflict to light so that it may be addresses together as an organizational team. This article does a wonderful job of explaining how conflict can be seen as an opportunity to build stronger teams.
Hagland, Mark. "Leading from the Middle." Journal of AHIMA 76, no.5 (May 2005): 34-37. Although this article takes a look at middle management through the lens of a Health Information Management perspective, the points that it makes are very relevant to many fields. Hagland speaks to the influence that middle management has to get things done within an organization, pointing out that middle management has a unique perspective on the organization. Unlike most positions, those in a middle management are oftentimes in tune with the bigger picture and initiatives of the upper level management, but also have insight on how things operate at the front lines. Oftentimes middle management has more rapport and influence on the front line workers directly than senior management would. This is an important dynamic to be aware of, especially in organizations that typically have a very defined hierarchical structure as many healthcare organizations do.
Hanleybrown, F., Kania, J., & Kramer, M. (2012, January 26). Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from As Collective Impact is emerging, we are able to compare how these efforts differ from other forms of collaboration which can be identified through the “five key conditions.” These factors combined provide the platform for larger success in social progress. Many nonprofits have fallen into the category of “isolated impact” where many deem it necessary to tackle an issue single-handled, but social problems are in actuality very complex and need multiple organizations on board to fix the overall problem. Isolated impact may contribute to temporary fixes, but there are typically multiple factors cause the issue. Collective Impact is then introduced to move agencies out of silos and combine efforts to improve topics like health, homelessness, addiction, education success, and so on. Not all situations are suited for Collective Impact, but the article describes the preconditions before initiating such an effort.
Hanson, K. (2009), What Exactly is Hope and How Can You Measure it?. Retrieved from This article from offers a great introduction to Hope Theory, hope measurement scales, and offers criticisms to the Hope Theory. This balance is greatly appreciated as not all articles of this type take the time to analyze the strengths and criticisms of the topics discussed. The Adult State Hope Scale appears to be a great tool to use when trying to assess the hope of a team or team member, and can be used for intentional coaching opportunities for leaders. Although it could be viewed as an oversimplification of the Hope Theory the article does a great job of breaking the theory down into its key components in an easy to digest manner. This article provides some solid information that can be used, but does an even better job of connecting people to additional resources for those looking to learn more about hope and the measurement scales that are covered in the text.
Heady, R. B., & Smith, M. (1996).  Feedback intensity and leader-follower behavior: A mathematical description.  Retrieved from: This article discusses using a mathematical model of feedback-controlled behavioral that was developed using minimal assumptions about the nature of the leader-follower system.  They discuss how feedback can affect responses that, in some cases, may not be predictable.  This could be beneficial for the chapter.
Heifetz, R. A., Grashow, A., & Linsky, M. (2009). The Practice of Adaptive Leadership: Tools and Tactics for Changing Your Organization and the World. Boston: Harvard Business Press. Adaptive leadership helps leadership organizations flourish in changing times. Crisis can be termed an “adaptive challenge”, they demand improvisation and experimentation that have not been needed previously. This is partly due to the leaps we are taking societally and technologically. The most important aspect of adaptive leadership is diagnosing a problem, usually individuals are so wrapped up in fixing the problem that the examination of the complication gets pushed aside. In order to diagnose effectively leaders need to separate themselves from the activity, this provides a different perspective than being in the thick of things and can help afford the correct measures to remedy the situation. First step is diagnosis, second is determining if the issue is ready to be addressed. If a crisis is happening, automatically assume that people are ready for change. Understand where you fall in things, people expect you to act in a certain way and changing things all at once can have unanticipated consequences. Determine how to dispel the information, giving clarity to why it’s important and how it will change things. Last step is to let the initiative have time to work, change is not easy for a lot of people and it generally requires an interval to get ready and then make the adjustment.
Heifetz, R., Grashow, A., & Linsky, M. (2011). Leadership in a (Permanent) Crisis. Harvard Business Review . When in a leadership position, being in crisis is the norm. The reassuring view that this current crisis is simply a phase that will pass is true, but it will continue into another high stakes gambit for the continuance of the company or community. The article states a crisis as having two phases, the emergency development during which the leaders job is to stabilize and create time, and the adaptive occurrence in which the underlying causes of the catastrophe and either lead in such a way as to ensure the avoidance of a similar situation or embrace the new direction and determine how to thrive. It is important that a leader is fluid and does not double down on outdated or ill-fitting procedures, individuals who are in charge need to look towards the future and develop long term fixes in increments over time. Embrace this time of crisis to reevaluate and gain momentum for policy change. 
Hirak, R., Peng, A. C., Carmeli, A., & Schaubroeck, J. M. (2012). Linking leader inclusiveness to work unit performance: The importance of psychological safety and learning from failures. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 107-117. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.11.009 This study focuses on the concept of leader inclusiveness and how this can facilitate learning from failures in hospital units, then using this learning to to improve unit performance. Learning from experience is critical to improve future outcomes. This is done by confronting problems, reflecting on previous failures, training employees in error management, and optimizing work systems. Members must be able to openly discuss a failure, evaluate the root cause, and discover what processes need to be changed to prevent future occurrences. The authors feel this this model is best met when practiced in a psychologically safe environment. Members are able to openly identify and ask about failure/errors without repercussions from other staff members or the leader, which in turn leads to better learning and planning to reduce future error rates. To learn from failures people need to be able to talk about them without fear of repercussion or ridicule. Groups with higher psychological safety are more likely to engage in process improvement discussions and learn from past failures, thus improving future performance.
Hoch, J. E., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2014). Leading virtual teams: Hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(3), 390-403. In this study, Hock and Kozlowski studied 101 virtual teams to understand the impact of hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership on virtual teams. They found that hierarchical leadership is not as strongly related to virtual teams as it is to traditional teams and suggested that arming virtual team leaders with appropriate support and training is important to their success. They also found that structural supports, including an equitable reward system and transparent communication, were more important when working in virtual teams. Finally, shared leadership played a role in team performance regardless of how virtual a team is. This article will be helpful when looking at theory related to leading virtual teams.
Hooper, J., Charney, W. (2005). Creation of a safety culture: reducing workplace injuries in a rural hospital setting. AAOHN . 53(9) 394-398. A rural hospital created an 11 step program in order to change the safety culture of the hospital. An undertaking like this requires administrative support and their support to make workplace arrangements to accommodate employees. This article also emphasizes the important factor that JCAHO reported that errors were made due to nurse understaffing and that can be contributed to the workplace risks that are part of working in the healthcare field. The researchers argue that without good staff safety, patient safety reflects this. The two should be paralleled and not competing for budgetary dollars.
Howard, J., Shaw, E. K., Felsen, C. B., & Crabtree, B. F. (2012). Physicians as Inclusive Leaders. Quality Management in Health Care, 21(3), 135-145. doi:10.1097/qmh.0b013e31825e876a This article focuses on the patient centered model home model of primary care, which requires a highly collaborative approach, and physician inclusiveness in such a setting. The authors specifically identify 3 physician leadership behaviors that exemplify leadership inclusiveness. The exemplifying behaviors are: explicitly soliciting team input; engaging in participatory decision making; and facilitating the inclusion of non–team members. Explicitly soliciting team input is most effective when lead physicians explicitly invite team input as well as subsequently acknowledge the contribution that was offered. In participatory decision making it is most beneficial when the physician remains actively engaged in the decision making process by sharing opinions and respectively challenging team members to reflect on the consequences of their decisions. This helps team members think clearer and more rationally about their decisions. The inclusion of non-team members is important in a healthcare setting as the healthcare team can be constantly changing. Inclusion of members that were not on the original team leads to building a sense of trust that may otherwise be lacking.
Hulbert N. J. & Morrison V. L. (2006) A preliminary study into stress in palliative care: Optimism, self-efficacy and social support, Psychology, Health & Medicine, 11:2, 246-254, DOI: 10.1080/13548500500266664 Being in a unique healthcare role that deals mostly with seeing the death rather than the cure of the patients that you work with, it is no surprise that palliative healthcare workers face incredible amounts of stress. This study looked at the power of self-efficacy, the confidence to carry out desired actions, optimism, and social support plays in stress levels, and ultimately worker burnout. As hypothesized there was a correlation between high optimism and high self-efficacy, and low perceived stress. One thing that I found important in this study is that optimists found the greatest support satisfaction. This is a very important relationship to investigate further. It has been shown that social support satisfaction can decrease stress levels. Seeing as how optimism is a key factor of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB), this could be evidence that POB is not only beneficial to patient care in palliative care settings, but may be essential to ensuring the well-being the of palliative care staff.
Human Rights Campaign. (2017). Health Care Equality Index Report 2017. The Human Rights Campaign is the largest policy and advocacy organization devoted to the equal treatment of the LGBT community in the United States. This report is a publication of the organization devoted to the evaluation of health care providers nationwide. Participating providers complete an evaluation to measure their degree of cultural competency for serving LGBTQ community members. The 2017 publication evaluated 1619 healthcare facilities across the country. Facilities who score well on the survey earn the coveted designation as a Healthcare Equality Leader. This designation signifies that awardees provide LGBT inclusive care.
Ilies, R., Pater, I. E., & Judge, T. (2007). Differential affective reactions to negative and positive feedback, and the role of self‐esteem. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22 (6), 590-609. Retrieved from: Ilies and colleagues sought to add to the literature the impact of feedback on affect. They conducted the study with 197 undergraduate students and asked them to complete tasks. They were then given feedback (positive and negative) on their performance and asked to rate their affective state. As one may expect, negative feedback increased negative affect yet only slightly decreased positive affect. The authors stated that positive affect is highly influenced by feedback that comments on the completion of goals. The authors also studied how self-esteem influenced how affect was changed based on the type of feedback they received. This is any interesting and unique study that will provide helpful insight into the pressbook chapter because both type of feedback and self-esteem are studied.  
Institute of Medicine. (2003). Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. This is a great resource that will help me provide research and case studies that have been done in order to look at how hospitals can avoid or reduce medical errors. This source also emphasizes the importance of nurses in the health care field and how they have the power to help reduce medical errors and save lives. This also includes actions that have been taken by the federal government to help support research on the etiology of medical errors and best practices for prevention. The authors also cite evidence that reveal important missing management practices in the nursing work environments.
Institute of Medicine. (2003). Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. This is a follow up to the well known IOM articles To Err is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm. This article focuses on making guidelines for improving patient safety by changing nurses’ working conditions and demands. As patients are increasingly cared for as outpatients, nurses in hospitals and nursing homes deal with greater severity of illness, making their are more complex. Nurses are an indispensable resource in detecting and remedying error-producing defects in a health care system. This article discusses the key aspects of the work environment for nurses and reviews the potential improvements in working conditions that are likely to have an impact on patient safety.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. This seminal report was published at the behest of the Institute of Medicine. In recognition of the dearth of LGBT health research, the IOM commissioned a group of health researchers, physicians, community based advocates, etc. to conduct a review and prepare a report assessing the state of the science on the health status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations and to identify research gaps and opportunities in this community. The purpose was to present the National Institutes of Health with a roadmap for establishing a body of research focused on the health of this population. The report made seven significant recommendations to achieve this purpose. Those are: Establish a research agenda, Collect sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data in federally funded health related surveys, Collect SOGI data in electronic health records, The NIH should develop standardized SOGI measures, The NIH should support methodological research related to LGBT health, A comprehensive research training process should be created to strengthen LGBT health research at NIH, The NIH should encourage grant applicants to explicitly discuss the inclusion or exclusion of sexual and gender minorities in their research samples.
Jarrett, M.P. (2017). Patient safety and leadership: do you walk the walk? Journal of Healthcare Management, 62 (2). Retrieved from|A491575560/9a19a002eaf4aeef397d969055556b55?u=colu44332 Dr. Mark Jarrett Chief Quality Officer at Northwell Health discusses measures that healthcare leaders can take to create a culture of safety in their institutions. Dr. Jarrett highlights the importance of measurement of safety issues as well as safety culture to guide safety interventions as well as to gain understanding of the opinions of multiple stakeholders. Even in circumstances where systems are in place to prevent errors, it is crucial that leaders continue to assess the systems in order to avoid complacency. Similar to other articles discussed in this annotated bibliography, Dr. Jarrett emphasizes the importance of a “just culture” (Jarrett 2017) in which staff members are supported when they bring up safety concerns rather than punished. Additionally the just culture focuses on accountability for all members of the healthcare team from the frontline staff up to executives. Similarly, this article also focuses on the importance of transparency, another theme noted in articles in this annotated bibliography.
Johnson A. (2016) Don’t Normalize Conflict. [Blog Post] Retrieved from’t-normalize-conflict This blog post discusses how the author has written countless articles on conflict management but during a discussion he had about how to avoid conflict he was met with resistance from the audience. They had become convinced that conflict was a good thing and something that should no longer be feared or shunned. The author states that conflict has become normalized and this may not be good outcome. The author goes on to give a history of how the “normalization” of conflict may has come to light. He details the different types of conflict and the potential hazards that my result from them. The author concludes that conflict can be a destructive force and states that it should not be normalized but regulated and minimized. I feel that this blog post is excellent for my chapter because it gives us a different and unexpected point of view about how leaders may want to think in relation to conflict management.
Johnson, P., Heimann, V., O’Neill, Karen. (2001) The “wonderland” of virtual teams, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 13 Issue: 1, pp.24-30, Retrieved from  This article provided an overview of virtual teams, their challenges, and strategies for a successful virtual team. With the article being written in 2001, it provides historical perspective to the idea of virtual teams at a time when the idea of them was still relatively young. It is important to understand that context when reviewing the article. The article identifies some of the benefits of utilizing virtual teams, including the cost savings, a reduction in pollution, and increasing the ability to employ a diverse population. Johnson et. al. highlighted that finding “self-starters”, individual accountability, and flexibility as essential components of leading virtual teams.
Jones, P., Polancich, S., Steaban, R., Feistritzer, N., & Poe, T. (2017). Transformational Leadership: The Chief Nursing Officer Role in Leading Quality and Patient Safety.  Journal for Healthcare Quality,39 (3),186-190. Chief Nursing Officers in academic medical centers are charged with achieving high quality patient care, as well as excellent clinical outcomes, for which they need certain leadership skills. They are often responsible for thousands of nurses and nursing staff members. Because their scope is so broad, it is important that CNOs are able to draw on strengths of followers and leaders. One leadership style that focuses on both, the leader and the follower, and their “mutual engagement,” is the transformational leadership style. The article talks about several positive effects a CNO using the transformational leadership style can have, like the support of a safety culture, effective communication, building and maintaining relationships with clinical, as well as staff members, being able to influence behaviors and being able to improve quality and safety.
Joshi, A., Lazarova, M., & Liao, H. (2009). Getting Everyone on Board: The Role of Inspirational Leadership in Geographically Dispersed Teams. Organization Science, 20(1), 240-252. Retrieved from Joshi, Lazarova, and Liao recognized the benefits of inspirational leadership among traditional teams and wanted to know if they similarly impacted virtual teams. They used a six item questionnaire to survey customer service employees’ perceptions of inspirational leadership within their team. The researchers found that the perception of inspirational leadership serves as a predictor of trust and commitment in the team and the positive relationship between these two were actually strengthened in teams that were virtual. This article will be helpful when discussing theory related to virtual teams.
Judy, R. W., & D'amico, C. (1997).  Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century . Hudson Institute, Herman Kahn Center, PO Box 26-919, Indianapolis, IN 46226; tele. This book was developed to look at the landscape of the workforce and economy in the United States in the recent past, present, and future. The authors looked at changes in economic sectors, workforce demographics, workforce skill requirements, and population demographics to make predictions about how employers/employees will need to adapt and grow to successfully meet the needs and demands of the population. This source provided valuable statistics regarding race and gender shifts in the workforce over previous decades and what is predicted for the US in 2020 (and even beyond to 2050). This data provides support for the necessity of expanding diversity in the work place and among leadership to mirror the changing demographics in the general population of the United States.
Kania, J., & Kramer, M. (2011). Collective Impact. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from Many in the education field are discovering that instead of following each individual agenda, it was better to collaborate in order to improve student achievement. The recent push of “from cradle to career” has motivated many agencies to align by realizing changing one aspect on the educational continuum does not fix the problem; all aspects of the continuum must improve together to make an impact. Strive is an initiative in Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky that took the Collective Impact approach to address the student achievement crisis and has successfully improved 34 of the 53 success indicators tracked. In order to track and measure, all organizations involved measured goals in the same matter and collected data using shared indicators. This article also highlighted other organizations using the Collective Impact framework, including efforts to reduce obesity in children, restoring a watershed, and companies like Mars to improve their supply chain. Collective Impact is also being used in the nonprofit sector to overcome the current “isolated impact” trend.
Kania, J., & Kramer, M. (2013). Embracing Emergence: How Collective Impact Addresses Complexity. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from Collective Impact is complex, but transparency can help combat that anticipated barrier. To explain this importance the analogy of birds flocking together was used; every organization involved can benefit and learn together which leads to coordinated responses. Since CI aims to address social issues, there is not a predetermined solution and requires multiple players including government, private, and nonprofit sectors. Creating a common agenda is an essential component of CI but this step does not mean that there is a common solution; it means that everyone has a common understanding of the problem. Complexity is reduced when the collaboration realizes the common goals or possible steps to achieve the common goal. Successful leaders of CI projects are seen to be as curious. They embrace uncertainty, but it never deters them from the end destination.
Kania, J., Hanleybrown, F., & Splansky Juster, J. (2014). Essential Mindset Shifts for Collective Impact. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from Collective Impact is an innovative approach to social change, but since introducing the framework early thinkers are now identifying mindset shifts as a critical component. These shifts include “who is engaged, how they work together, how progress happens” (p.1). To start it is important to involve the correct people and cross-sectional organizations. Successes will happen, but it is important to not have individuals take credit when it is a joint endeavor, instead all credit should be shared. Integrity to the framework is one of the most important aspects to funders. When money is put on the table, it is important to not use CI as a buzzword and stay true to cross-sectional approach. The last mindset shift is moving from technical solutions to adaptive work. The social sector has always involved technical approaches but when using CI, there is not a known solution so there is a need to constantly learn and adapt. In many cases of CI stakeholders are encouraged to not look for the “silver bullet solution” but think of it as a “silver buckshot” that includes how everyone’s work fits into the larger puzzle.
Kaspin, LC., Gorman, KM., Miller, RM. (2013). Systematic review of employer-sponsored wellness strategies and their economic and health-related outcomes. Popul Health Manag . 16(1) 14-21. Health and economic related outcomes were studied in a review of the literature of employer-sponsored wellness programs. Economic improvements studied were health care costs, return on investment, absenteeism, productivity, worker’s compensation, and utilization. Decreased health risks were also studied. Some of the common themes from successful implementation and utilization of the program include: corporate culture was committed to improving lives and not cutting costs, employees and leadership were motivated to support the program and improve their health, participation was encouraged and a physical environment was suitable to motivate employees, programs were adaptable, there was support from community health environments to provide education, support and treatment, technology was utilized to aid in health risks and education.
Kazimoto P. Analysis of Conflict Management and Leadership for Organizational Change. Sept 2013;3(1):16-25. The article discusses the concepts of conflict management, leadership and conflict management, and conflict management and organizational change. The author emphasizes that leadership approaches important for conflict management. I really like how the author mentions that effective leaders may sometimes provoke conflict because they see it as necessary for team development. The article discusses how leaders need to acknowledge the issues that conflict may cause within a team but at the same time recognize that this conflict is an opportunity to enhance team development and contribute to organizational change and improvement. I feel that this is a good article for my chapter because it provides a summary of what conflict is and its concepts, causes of conflicts, how to manage conflict, and the result of conflict on organizational teams.
Kelloway, E. K., Barling, J., & Helleur, J. (2000). Enhancing transformational leadership: The roles of training and feedback. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21 (3), 145-149. Retrieved from: This article focuses on transformational leadership specifically to evaluate the followers’ perceptions of the leader after both training and feedback is provided. The experiment followed 40 leaders and 180 followers in a 2 by 2 design (because of the two variables). Overall, the results showed that followers’ perceptions of the leaders’ transformational leadership improved but that the leaders’ leadership was not changed. However, the study authors did find that the training and feedback positively influenced the leaders’ behavior, but this did not translate into improved transformational leadership overall. I think this article provides another perspective on how feedback and training impact both the leader and the followers. Because of the 2x2 design, it will not allow for a conclusion to be drawn specifically on feedback’s role in transformational leadership. However, I think it does provide how a leader of the transformational style can provide feedback to followers to show them what transformational leadership looks like to improve the perceptions of the followers.
Kessel, M., Kratzer, J., & Schultz, C. (2012). Psychological Safety, Knowledge Sharing, and Creative Performance in Healthcare Teams. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(2), 147-157. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.2012.00635.x This is an article that uses responses from 73 healthcare teams to assess the use of group processes and the diver knowledge shared by multi-disciplinary team members to develop new ideas. Healthcare teams must work together to create and provide suitable care for the patient and every member of the care team. This requires a level of creativity and high frequency of complex idea sharing. This can create a level of uncertainty and interpersonal risk taking for which psychological safety is key to help overcome. This is a survey based study that showed feelings of psychological safety in teams contributes to creative performance, specifically through high levels of information and knowledge sharing.
Key, K. (2017). Expanding Ethics Review Processes to Include Community-Level Protections: A Case Study from Flint, Michigan. AMA Journal of Ethics , 3. Clearing the health catastrophe was the first and most important objective once the issue was known, but another key objective is to regain that trust lost after this overwhelming lapse in judgement from leaders that the citizens of Flint Michigan paid the cost for. A lot of good research can be gathered from this unfortunate event, but with the hardships that these citizens have faced the willingness to participate in a study is not forthcoming. This article argues that community level ethical protections, and not only IRB processes, will help the population feel more informed and pull the community together. Currently the city of Flint has a Community Ethics Review Board which is led by local residents, in addition they have partnered with the Healthy Flint Research Coordinating Center which is in charge of vetting research studies for this community.  
Kirschman, D. (1999). Leadership is the Key to Chief Medical Officer Success.  Physician Executive Journal, 36-39. The article talks about how initially, the medical officer position was created with the intent of having a physician on the senior management team who understood the medical, as well as administrative sides and could function as a “liaison.” In 1998/1999 the Physician Executive Management Center conducted a survey, asking physicians in senior medical management positions about the value they provide to their organization. The results of the survey were that these individuals believe that they have knowledge and experience they can bring to the table on the management, as well as medical side. A solid background on the medical side was especially important, in order to be accepted as a leader by other physicians, and to be able to function as the liaison between medical and management. Personal characteristics that seemed important for chief medical directors were judgment, loyalty, rational thinking, common sense, ethics and integrity. When asked what they enjoy the most about their position, the highest response was working with other physicians and in the community, which involves education, mentoring, leadership and being the link between management and physicians. Management duties were mentioned often, as well. Especially daily operations, problem solving, implementation of new programs, negotiation, and managing a complex environment were highlighted in this category.
Knudsen, H. K., Ducharme, L. J., & Roman, P. M. (2009). Turnover intention and emotional exhaustion 'at the top': Adapting the job demands-resources model to leaders of addiction treatment organizations.  Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14 (1), 84-95. 10.1037/a0013822 The authors, recognizing a lack of research on emotional exhaustion and turnover intention for organizational leaders, completed research on leaders of addiction treatment organizations (n = 410) focusing on the leaders’ turnover intent and emotional exhaustion. Turnover intention, rather than actual turnover, was chosen since true turnover data requires longitudinal research as opposed to cross-sectional like the authors’ work. The authors used two job demand related independent variables, performance demand and centralization (making more day-to-day decisions), and two job resource related independent variables, innovation in decision-making and long-range strategic planning. The researchers’ hypotheses were mostly confirmed: higher levels of emotional exhaustion were significantly associated with larger turnover intention (p < .001) and the two job demands were also significantly associated with emotional exhaustion (both p < .01).
Knudsen, H. K., Johnson, J. A., & Roman, P. M. (2003). Retaining counseling staff at substance abuse treatment centers: Effects of management practices.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24 (2), 129-135. 10.1016/S0740-5472(02)00357-4 Using data from substance use treatment center administrators gathered in the National Treatment Center Study from 1995-1998, the authors sought to find management practices that most effectively retain staff members, specifically counselors. Interviews with administrators, clinical directors, and marketing directors were performed first (n not listed) followed by mailed questionnaires to counselors (n = 1074). While the study data is dated for research purposes, the themes discovered could still have value for managers seeking to develop and retain their counselors. Using software to construct and analyze paths between all hypothesized variables with t-tests and regression models, the authors found three management practices that protect against turnover: providing job autonomy (degree to which respondents believed they had authority to do their job), enabling employees’ creativity, and rewarding employees’ performance, both monetarily and otherwise.
Kohler, K., Contacos-Sawyer, J., Thomas, B. (2015). Employee Wellness Programs: Savings for Organizations and Employees. Competition Forum . 13(2). This article is a case study of a University’s employee wellness program. A survey was sent out to see the impact of the program and what barriers may be. Many employees stated they did not have time to go to the wellness programs. Chronic diseases effect many Americans and healthcare workers. When these chronic diseases are targeted through programs it can save money for employers by having less insurance claims to pay and for employees for overall health and less physician visits requiring co-pays and hospitalizations. Employees say they would be motivated by monetary rewards and increased time off.
Kollee, J. A. J. M., & Giessner, S. R., & Knippenberg, D. (2013).  Leader evaluations after performance feedback: The role of follower mood.  Retrieved from: This article examines how followers tend to attribute performance outcomes to leadership and how the follower’s mood moderates this effect in two experiments (students and working population).  The study demonstrates that performance information has a weaker effect on leadership evaluations when the follower is in a positive mood compared to negative.  This also holds true regarding the performance information about the team.  This study may have an impact on this chapter.
Kostopoulos, K. C., & Bozionelos, N. (2011). Team Exploratory and Exploitative Learning: Psychological Safety, Task Conflict, and Team Performance. Group & Organization Management, 36(3), 385-415. doi:10.1177/1059601111405985 This article introduces the concepts of exploratory and exploitative learning as well as task conflict and how these affect team level performance. According to the text “Exploration involves search, variation, experimentation, flexibility, and discovery; whereas exploitation pertains to refinement, efficiency, selection, and execution.” Intragroup conflict is generally separated into 2 types - Relationship conflict that is caused by interpersonal incompatibilities and Task conflict which is triggered by differences in members’ viewpoints regarding group tasks and activities. Relationship conflict has always been associated with negative outcomes, however high levels of task conflict may enhance the effects of psychological safety on team learning. This article draws several conclusions: “psychological safety is positively related to learning in a linear fashion for exploitative learning and nonlinearly for exploratory learning. Task conflict positively moderates the relationship between psychological safety and exploitative learning. Exploratory and exploitative learning are additively related to team performance.”
Kulesza, M., Hunter, S. B., Shearer, A. L., & Booth, M. (2017). Relationship between provider stigma and predictors of staff turnover among addiction treatment providers.  Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 35 (1), 63-70. 10.1080/07347324.2016.1256716
Lacoursiere, R. B. (2001). 'Burnout' and substance user treatment: The phenomenon and the administrator-clinician's experience.  Substance use & Misuse, 36 (13), 1839-1874. 10.1081/JA-100108430
Laschinger, H. K. S., Borgogni, L., Consiglio, C., & Read, E. (2015). The effects of authentic leadership, six areas of worklife, and occupational coping self-efficacy on new graduate nurses’ burnout and mental health: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52 (6), 1080-1089.
Leadership role in improving safety (2017 June). Agency for healthcare research and quality patient safety network. Retrieved from This article makes the distinction between the importance of not only executive leaders, but also the frontline leaders, in creating a culture of safety in healthcare institutions. Similar to other articles discussed here, this article identifies the importance of a system-wide approach to safety as well as the crucial component of leadership behavior in producing safety. Additionally, the article identifies the important role of hospital boards in promoting safety measures and discusses the direct link between activities of the board and safety metrics at the institution. According to the article, the hospital board should also intervene as early as possible for medical professionals who are found to be engaging in unsafe behavior. The IHI’s leadership walkrounds discussed in this annotated bibliography, are also identified as a key component to improving patient safety. Expanding upon the IHI’s recommendations, this article identifies the importance of quickly addressing concerns found in walkrounds.
Leiter, M. P., & Harvie, P. (1997). Correspondence of supervisor and subordinate perspectives during major organizational change.  Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2 (4), 343-352.
Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (1999). Six areas of worklife: A model of the organizational context of burnout.  Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 21 (4), 472-489.
Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2004). Areas of worklife: A structured approach to organizational predictors of job burnout.  Research in occupational stress and well-being ,  3 , 91-134.
Leonard, M. (2004). The human factor: The critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care.  Quality and Safety in Health Care,13 (Suppl_1), I85-I90. doi:10.1136/qhc.13.suppl_1.i85 This journal article provides an example from Kaiser Permanent on the importance of teamwork in providing quality care. A case study on a neonatal unit involving fetal distress, reveals how Kaiser Permanente was able to create a standardized method for reducing known medical errors associated with fetal distress.
Levasseur, R. E. (2012). People Skills: Leading Virtual Teams--A Change Management Perspective. Interfaces, 42(2), 213-216. This article was one in a series of articles about change management and explored how it could be applied to virtual teams. Levasseur reviewed research specific to the challenges associated with virtual teams. Some of these included lack of face-to-face contact, communication barriers, difficulty in aligning goals and obtaining clarity on team objectives, ensuring the availability of appropriate technological resources, and building trust among team members. Levasseur applied his own research on change management to these issues and identified two primary ways to address the identified challenges. Levasseur recommended establishing ground rules, emphasizing that it is both the rules and the dialogue that leads to the rules that build trust among team members. Finally, Levasseur discussed conflict as the “Achilles heel” of virtual teams and recommended establishing a ground rule to identify, discuss, and resolve conflicts as soon as they come to light. This article will be useful when discussed strategies of leading effective virtual teams and provides a number of beneficial citations within it to review.
Levy, P. (2017, August 14). 'When blame is lopsided, it can lead to tragedy'. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from This article discusses the hierarchy that exists in health care that causes nurses to feel as though they are inferior to the doctors they work with. The article also points out that some doctors put blame on the nurses for medical errors that occur. The article also includes real life examples on how nurses have been blamed for medical errors and how the blame affects their abilities to perform at work. Levy argues that hospital leadership needs to help protect nurses from wrongful blame in these doctor-dominated settings.
Loehr A. (2017, Dec 6) Leadership Guide for Handling Conflict. [Blog post]. Retrieved from This blog post discusses the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. This is an instrument that leaders can use to learn more about their own conflict styles and the styles of their team or organization members. The blog summarizes the five types of conflict management styles which include; competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, and accommodating. The blog then gives a thorough explanation of when to use each conflict management style. The author also discusses when each style is not warranted and also what signs a leader should look for if he/she are overusing a particular conflict management style. I feel that this blog is a good source for my chapter because it shows that leaders need to be able to recognize these five conflict management styles to be an effective leader. Leaders also need to be able to decide on which conflict management style to employ in different situations.
Loehr A. (2017, May 25) Why Conflict at Work is a Good Thing. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from This blog post discusses how conflict is something good and necessary within the workplace to help increase team production and that an attempt to avoid or hide conflict can be detrimental to a team. Avoiding conflict can give the team a false sense of harmony and eventually create a disaster within the team structure if it is not addressed. The author continues to report that CPP’s Global Human Capital Report on workplace conflict shows that positive outcomes are reported by those who experience workplace conflicts. The author goes on to describe what teams that welcome conflict and what teams that do not and describe what those teams may look like. The author gives a few case examples to help support her claim that workplace conflict is something that is needed to improve team performance. Then the author concludes with discussing some tips that teams may use to welcome conflict into their workplace. I feel this blog post is good for my chapter because is helps provide a basic structure to why conflict is beneficial in the workplace.
Lokko, Hermioni N., et al. "Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the US Psychiatric Workforce: A Perspective and Recommendations."  Academic Psychiatry  40.6 (2016): 898-904. This article focused on how the field of psychiatry can work to serve an increasingly culturally diverse population in the United States. The message that I found to be the biggest take home was a promotion of cultural respect as opposed to just cultural competency. The authors believe that competency implies that this is a skill that can be learned and honed once and then applied universally. Cultural respect implies instead that an individual is aware that this is a skill that requires constant cultivation and growth and there is not a finite end to learning it. The article discusses how multiple levels of stakeholders need to be involved to improve relationships and care provided to diverse populations and eliminate biases. It gave a few scenarios to demonstrate how cultural understanding and respect improve care provided to patients as well.
Lone, F. (2018). Can Electrically Stimulating Your Brain Make You Too Happy?. The Atlantic. Retrieved from This article, published in the Atlantic, takes a look at how deep brain stimulation can be used to produce happiness in patients. By no means am I advocating that leaders suggest deep brain stimulation to increase happiness in their teammates, rather I chose this article as it demonstrates that the medical field oftentimes falls into a line of thinking that their job is simply to get their patients from a state of ailment to a state of no longer ailing and nothing beyond that. This is a pre-positive psychology line of thinking and perfectly demonstrates the methods that Seligman said medical and psychological professionals focus much of their time and energy on; fixing things that are broken rather than promoting the growth and strengths that allow people to grow.
Longnecker, D. E., Patton, M., & Dickler, R. M. (2007). Roles and Responsibilities of Chief Medical Officers in Member Organizations of the Association of American Medical Colleges.  Academic Medicine,82 (3),258-263. This paper focuses on the roles and responsibilities of physician leaders in member organizations of the AAMC. Due to the many challenges hospitals are facing, hospital administrators have increasingly identified physician leaders to oversee clinical care coordination, as well as integration. These leaders have titles like chief medical officer, vice president for medical affairs, or vice dean for clinical affairs, among others. The authors of this article surveyed physician leaders at different member organization of the AAMC, asking questions concerning their demographics, titles, qualification, tenure, reporting relationships, and others. Outcomes of the study were that CMOs spend most of their time on administrative tasks and CMO duties, with only a small amount of time spent on research, teaching and clinical practice. Within their CMO duties, attention to clinical quality and patient safety, as well as coordination of inpatient and outpatient clinical operations, comprised more than half of their time (52%). The authors identified personal history, stature and relationships with colleagues, as well as senior leadership and executive commitment to the role as factors contributing to success in their position. Because CMOs have a clinical background, as well as experience on the administrative side, it gives them a unique position within the organization. The paper calls this unique positioning an “intermediary” between the clinical and administrative side.
Lundgren, L., Amodeo, M., Krull, I., Chassler, D., Weidenfeld, R., de, S. Z., . . . Beltrame, C. (2011). Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: Results from a national study.  American Journal on Addictions, 20 (3), 271-284. 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2011.00127.x During this national study of implementing evidence-based treatment in community addiction treatment providers (excluding specially identified programs in the NIDA Clinical Trial Network (CTN)), the organizational and leadership factors of directors (n = 212) were analyzed for correlation with perceived attitudes of their staff’s resistance to organizational change. The authors’ linear regression model found that those directors with less staff cohesion and autonomy who also saw their organization as needing more guidance displayed higher levels of staff resistance to organizational change. The authors recommended that more funds are needed to properly train staff in evidence-based practices. Additionally, these results may show a need for addiction treatment leaders to strengthen their staff’s cohesion, as this is a protective factor against resistance to change.
Luthans, F. (2002), The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. J. Organiz. Behav., 23: 695–706. doi:10.1002/job.165 Most would consider Fred Luthans to be one of the pioneers of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB). Therefore, it is essential to look as his work, and understand what POB means and why it is necessary. Luthans argues that is necessary to take a “positive approach emphasizing strengths, rather than continuing in the downward spiral of negativity trying to fix weaknesses.” As seen in the positive psychology movement, if organizations allocate all of their resources and time toward fixing illness it may leave itself vulnerable to preventing these issues in the first place. The same can be said for organizations. By focusing on strengths, hope, confidence and resiliency, rather than fixing what is wrong, it will be a giant leap in the right direction for organizations, and areas of research in the future. One line from the article that really resonated with me was “a highly confident leader or employee seems ideal for effectiveness and high performance in today’s workplace.” There aren’t many professions that require more effectiveness and high performance than healthcare as decisions made in these settings oftentimes can have a huge impact on the quality of lives of others that entrust them to do a job well done.
Luthans, F., & Church, A. H. (2002). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy Of Management Executive, 16(1), 57-72. doi:10.5465/AME.2002.664018 Luthans goes into great detail about the foundations of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB), and how its beginnings stem from concepts of positive psychology. This is content that can be found in many other articles. What makes this article so useful is how Luthans goes on to explain in detail the five aspects of POB, self-efficacy, hope, subjective well-being, emotional intelligence, and optimism. Not only does Luthans go in great detail about what each of these aspects are, but how to measure them, the impact they have in the workplace, how to develop each aspect, and what role they play POB. Having access to such insight from someone viewed as one of the founding fathers of POB is invaluable. Although this is discussed in a general organizational sense, many of the concepts discussed can be applied to a palliative care setting, and is essential for building the foundation of what POB is early on in the chapter.
Makadon, H. J., Mayer, K. H., Potter, J., & Goldhammer, H. (Eds.). (2105) The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians. The second edition of this groundbreaking text. Fenway Health is a Federally Qualified Health Center located in Boston, Massachusetts. The Fenway Institute is the research and education arm of the larger health care organization. This publication is a comprehensive guide to caring for LGBT individuals. The guide is written for a wide range of health professionals, including physicians, nurses, social workers, students and public health professionals. The guide contains 20 chapters covering health across the lifespan for LGBT communities. There are special sections covering disease prevention, gender identity and gender expression, and LGBT health from a public policy perspective. The publication includes a strong focus on concepts of intesectionality and the role of social determinants of health in health outcome for this population. It is written such a way that the chapters can stand alone as individual texts for use by specialists in a variety of health practices, containing sections specifically focused on intimate partner violence or substance abuse, etc. The guide also contains appendices with practical tools for use by clinicians and administrators.
Malhotra, A., Majchrzak, A., & Rosen, B. (2007). Leading virtual teams. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 21(1), 60-70. This article focuses on six practices of effective leadership in virtual teams. The authors identify them as establishing trust; ensuring diversity is appreciated; managing meetings; monitoring team progress; enhancing team visibility both inside and outside of the organization; and ensuring individual team members are finding benefit from participation. The similarities between traditional and virtual teams were explored, including the need to describe the vision in a way that motivates others to align with it. The authors also identified strategies to achieve the six practices of effective leadership in virtual teams. As part of this, the identified a structure for virtual meetings, including offering social time at the start of each meeting, utilizing check-ins to ensure everyone is engaged and being heard, and posting meeting minutes in a central location available to all team members. This article will be beneficial when discussing strategies for leading effective virtual teams.
Malling, B., Bonderup, T., Mortensen, L., Ringsted, C., & Scherpbier, A. (2009). Effects of multi-source feedback on developmental plans for leaders of postgraduate medical education. Medical Education, 43 (2), 159-167. Retrieved from: The authors looked at using 360-degree feedback for leaders of a post graduate medical education program. Similar to the study by Kelloway, this study looked at the impact of both 360-degree feedback and guidance on drafting developmental plans for not only the leaders but also their department. Unfortunately for my purposes for this chapter, the responses mostly included plans to improve the department and not their own leadership performance. However, this could be used in developing a “tool kit” in creating a feedback rich organization. This study lends data to support that 360-degree feedback can be a helpful supplemental tool for leadership development but is not strong enough to stand on its own. I like that this article’s  target population is in the healthcare field and can provide guidance on the usefulness of 360-degree feedback.
Manser, T. (2008). Teamwork and patient safety in dynamic domains of healthcare: a review of the literature. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 53(2), 143-151. doi:10.1111/j.1399-6576.2008.01717.x Teamwork is paramount in providing safe patient care. Poor communication can lead to poor coordination, delays, and unsafe care. The medical industry is unique from many other industries in that the teams can be very dynamic (this is really the norm), which is much different from other organizations. Teams have dynamically changing members, come together for short periods of time, consist of multiple specialists, and must integrate numerous professional cultures. Poor communication and teamwork, rather than a lack of clinical skills, are some of the major causes of medical adverse events. Interestingly, is has been shown that more conventional status a person holds the higher their perceived level of teamwork and that perceptions of teamwork are related to quality and safety of patient care. Perceptions of teamwork are related to employee outcomes such as emotional exhaustion, burnout, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. All of these aspects underscore the importance of leadership inclusiveness.
Manser, T. (2008). Teamwork and patient safety in dynamic domains of healthcare: a review of the literature.  Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica,   53 (2), 143-151. doi:10.1111/j.1399-6576.2008.01717.x The article discusses research findings that support the relationship between teamwork and patient safety in the health care setting. Studies support that the relationship among a treating team can contribute to unwanted health outcomes for an individual. The article specifically addresses healthcare providers’ perceptions of teamwork; the one aspect I found to be the most interesting is how the perceptions of teamwork and leadership style are associated with staff well being which ultimately may impact a providers’ ability to provide safe patient care. This article does a good job at incorporating supportive research studies on the topic. An observational study mentioned by Lingard et al., supports the notion that failures in communication contribute to procedural complications.
Manz, C. C., Pearce, C. L., & Sims, H. P., Jr. (2009). The Ins and Outs of Leading Teams: An Overview. Organizational Dynamics, 38(3), 179-182. This article talks about the art of leading teams. It discusses how different types of teams, such as permanent versus temporary and different geographical configurations, require some similar and some different team dynamics to be successful. One thing that happens when a team works well together is that there is not necessarily one individual that needs to take on the more traditional leader role but all the teams members in essence share the role, which is something the article discusses. The roles each team member takes on tends to depend on what project they are working on and what each team member's strengths are related to that project. The article also points out that in order for this to work, the teams need to feel empowered to act by whomever they report to so that they feel that they can work autonomously and have a sense of pride in their work and will want to continue the work they are doing in the future.
María Luisa Martínez-Martí & Willibald Ruch (2016) Character strengths predict resilience over and above positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12:2, 110-119, DOI: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1163403 This article explores the use of VIA character strengths as a predictor of resilience. The authors found that the largest correlations were observed with emotional, intellectual, and restraint strengths. While zest was the strength with the largest correlation to resilience. The VIA character strengths assessment and strength based interventions are a large of positive psychology and interventions to develop skills in individuals. Luthans states that resilience is a key factor of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB), but so is the ability to develop resilience and other core capacities. Many of the VIA character strengths are viewed as muscles in the sense that they can be used more or less, and even developed with intentional effort. By understanding this exploring character strengths in organizations can be an effective tool in POB.
Marinescu, LG. (2007). Integrated Approach for Managing Health Risks at Work – The Role of Occupational Health Nurses. Business and Leadership . 55(2) 75-87. This Article, written by an occupational health nurse, introduces the idea that health employees are more productive explained by the health and productivity management model. Different interventions are aimed at improving morale, reducing turnover, and increasing productivity. Increasing age in the workforce is a contributing factor to an increased awareness of employee health. Assessing a work-force for common diseases in order to have best impact for implementation. Occupational health nurses are a great form of leadership to use to instill best practices and evidence based care. The article also highlighted 10 themes for success (from Goetzel et al 2001). Those that pertain to leadership include alignment with the business strategy, senior management and operations leaders as key team members, champions in order to spread the vision, communication across the network, and an emphasis on health over economic benefit. Sustainability comes from alignment with the organization’s mission and vision and top leadership support should be had in all stages of development. There is also a great section about creating a team and supporting environment. Benchmarking should also be considered to establish best practices.
Marshall, A., Mueck, S., & Shockley, R. (2015). How leading organizations use big data and analytics to innovate. Strategy & Leadership , 43 (5), 32–39. This article does an incredible job of constructing the factors that set leaders apart from ‘strivers’ and ‘strugglers’ in organizational usage of big data and analytic tools for innovation. First off, it is important to note that according to data from a 2014 survey, more than 1000 business leaders agreed that using big data and analytics are necessary for companies to innovate, compete, and take success to the next level. The best practices of a leader are laid out and recommendations on how to emulate these ideals are enlisted. A leader promotes data quality and builds a culture of quantitative innovation. This has been a common theme across literature that leaders leverage their data across and throughout a wide range of processes. In this sense, leaders work to include analytics into every role which can be done by promoting training of all levels of employees. This article will prove an enormous help in structuring and writing my chapter.
Maslach, C. (2001). What have we learned about burnout and health?.  Psychology & Health ,  16 (5), 607-611.
Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 93 (3), 498-512. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.498
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996).  Maslach burnout inventory manual . Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Masten, S. J., Davies, S. H., & Mcelmurry, S. P. (2016). Flint Water Crisis: What Happened and Why? US National Library of Medicine , 22-34. This covers the backstory of Flint, starting with the city ordering all piping with water mains to be lead in 1897. Originally Flint was buying their water from Detroit, principally to ensure the quantity of water the city needed. Unregulated industry waste kept the water quality of the flint river poor, with treatments only happening two to four times a year for a couple days to keep that option as a backup water supply open. To improve cost saving, the city of Flint decided to create its own pipeline to lake Huron, and after agreements on a short term contract fell through with Detroit it was decided to treat and use the backup water, from the Flint River. Another unfortunate occurrence was the expedited timeline to change water sources, without proper time and testing the consensus was that this could be a disaster, and that proved to be the case. The Flint river water had high corrosive properties, and due to the expense (around 150 dollars a day), corrosion inhibitor was not being added to the treatment of the water. The water worked on the lead pipes and resulted in a very high (90 th percentile) concentration of lead in the water.  
Maxwell, N. L., Rotz, D., & Garcia, C. (2016). Data and Decision Making: Same Organization, Different Perceptions; Different Organizations, Different Perceptions. American Journal of Evaluation , 37 (4), 463–485. This article took a formal and analytical look at what perceptions about data-driven decision making (DDDM) must be in place for effective acceptance and support. The specific focus was on how to promote DDDM in non-for-profit organizations. This was accomplished by examining differences in perception and differences in organizational culture that either promote or inhibit acceptance. One interesting finding was that different perceptions of DDDM came from differing definitions of data and DDDM. Therefore, it is suggested that one cannot assume or take for granted a common and shared value and definition system and that this will be unique across each organization. Most importantly for my research, the article discussed how to build a culture to support DDDM in an organization. Again, creating a common definition and understanding is important. Additionally, it is important to gain the trust of your organization that the “right data is being used to make the right decisions that support the right outcomes in the right moment.” I believe this article will be a useful framework addition to my discussions regarding organizational culture and acceptance towards DDDM.
Meurling, L., Hedman, L., &Fellander-Tsai, L. (2013).  Leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study.  Retrieved from: This study looks at individuals’ experiences during simulation-based team training (SBTT), specifically how leaders and followers may differ in their response to SBTT.  They felt important information was gained regarding SBTT and how to improve it further.  Participants also received feedback regarding their role within SBTT.  Not much information was discussed about the feedback process.  The leader and follower perspectives will be helpful for sections of the feedback chapter.
Michael S. Knapp, Juli A. Swinnerton, Michael A. Copland, & Jack Monpas-Huber. (2006). Data-Informed Leadership in Education. The Wallace Foundation , (October), 56. This report delves into data-informed leadership, specifically in the education system, and how leaders can build a culture within their organization that support data driven decision making and data inquiry. This culture must be encircled in trust and protection for inquiry surrounding asking and answering questions about practice and performance metrics. One important way this can be accomplished is through disseminated and distributed leadership across many roles. The investment of all players in the use of data is important to gain support across the organization. The culture of inquiry is an intriguing term used to describe an organization that supports data-informed leadership. I found many useful perspectives surrounding data-informed leadership as well as numerous concrete evidence of how to build this sort of atmosphere in educational settings. I will be utilizing the language of “cycles of inquiry” and “data-informed leadership” heavily in my chapter because I believe this is a perfect representation of my chapter goals.
Mitchell, R., Boyle, B., Parker, V., Giles, M., Chiang, V., & Joyce, P. (2015). Managing Inclusiveness and Diversity in Teams: How Leader Inclusiveness Affects Performance through Status and Team Identity. Human Resource Management, 54(2), 217-239. doi:10.1002/hrm.21658 Interprofessional healthcare teams are comprised of different professions that collaborate on decision making and service delivery. Any number of differences can lead to friction, hostility, and poor performance. Diversity in interprofessional teams has been identified as an important aspect in contributing to effectiveness via the diverse professional expertise and knowledge-related advantages this affords. Yet, diversity can also be a source of conflict and poor performance. It has been shown that healthcare professionals tens to operate in uni-professional silos with little knowledge sharing across inter professional borders. Leadership inclusiveness of course encourages the appreciation and seeking diverse contributions of the inter professional team members. This study shows that leadership inclusiveness is important in mediating team identity and perceived status differences with respect to performance.
Moffatt-Bruce, S., MD, PhD, MBA. (2018, March 6). Leadership Story of Susan Moffatt-Bruce, MD [Personal Interview]. Dr. Susan Moffatt-Bruce is a cardiothoracic surgeon by trade but she has stepped up to many leadership roles throughout her career. Currently serving as the Executive Director of University Hospital at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, she previously served as the inaugural Chief Quality and Patient Safety Officer and serves on several boards and committees with national oversight of quality and patient safety. She defines leadership as a state of mind that is cultivated with experience and vision and is impossible without them, which she demonstrates through her vast experiences and emphasis on always having a vision. She also believes in the importance of being able to pull together a team of people to work toward accomplishing a vision and being persistent when making changes within an organization. She concluded our interview by saying that, “ultimately leadership is a privilege and it is earned, you have to work at it and earn the right to lead people” and it is evident by her leadership and her journey that she has earned the right to lead people.
Morris, A., Bloom, J. (2002). Contextual Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Community Mental Health Centers Undergoing System Changes in the Financing of Care. Mental Health Services Research . (4) 71-83. Studying the contextual factors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This shows how the internal workings of a system reflect on the delivery of high quality care. The two main contextual factor categories are organizational structure and organizational culture and climate. Organizational structure includes hierarchy of authority, clinician participation in decision making, and formalization of policies and procedures. Greater senses of community foster job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction was correlated to the perception of workplace culture and climate. Job satisfaction reflects on the quality of care provided.
Murphy, S. (2016), The Optimistic Workplace , American Management Association This book by Shawn Murphy takes a dive into how managers, known as stewards in this text, can use their position to create a more optimistic workplace. He argues that an optimistic workplace can lead to happier, healthier, and more productive staff. Not only does Murphy dive deep into the principles of Positive Organizational Scholarship to illustrate his point, he explores the practices of many highly productive optimistic organizations in order to see what they are doing to best serve their teams. Although Murphy’s point of view seems very skewed toward the pros of an optimistic, and doesn’t explore many, if any, potential weaknesses of this model, this book is a great resource for ways to model leadership in a positive light and help teams grow through a more positive style of management.
Myers, M. (2015), Improving Military Resilience Through Mindfulness Training, Retrieved from This short, easy to read article from the U.S. Army website describes how the Army is using mindfulness to improve resilience in troops prior to deployment. One interesting point that this article points out is that mindfulness training not only helped the troops to develop resilience, but also increased their attention and made them much more engaged in their work. From a leadership perspective this could be a very powerful tool. It may be worth exploring mindfulness training in jobs that require great deals of attention, prior to training programs, and in jobs that may have high stress areas. The article states that STRONG, an Army research group, received $1.7 million grant to continue research, so this may be an area to look into even further in the near future.
Myers, V. L., & Dreachslin, J. L. (2007). Recruitment and retention of a diverse workforce: Challenges and opportunities.  Journal of Healthcare Management ,  52 (5), 290. This article highlights some important steps that leadership in healthcare organizations need to consider when trying to diversify their workforce. Before an organization sets out to increase the diversity of their workforce, they need to consider their organizational culture. If their culture is not one that is supportive of diversity, they may be able to hire diverse employees, but they will not be able to retain them. Leaders need to outline their strategic goals as they relate to diversity and implement policies and procedures that align with these goals to both recruit and retain a diverse workforce. To attract employees, diversity should be featured in imagery on websites and print media at all levels of employment, not just entry-level positions. Informal recruitment through current employees should be limited if the workforce is currently homogeneous as this will likely result in recruitment of individuals with similar backgrounds/characteristics. Leaders should also take emotional intelligence into consideration during the interview process.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018). Opioid-related overdose death rates (per 100,000 people). Opioid summaries by state .
National Research Council of the National Academies. (2015). Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science . Committee on the Science of Team Science, N.J. Cooke, M.L. Hilton, Editors. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press. This volume, published by the National Research Council of the National Academies has a lot of valuable information on Team Science but Chapters 6 (Team Science Leadership) and 7 (Supporting Virtual Collaboration) are especially interesting to me. Chp. 6 covers many of the topics discussed so far in PUBHHMP 6615: differences between leading and management, the different styles of leadership (and how they “influence the effectiveness of team science”), and how to determine your own leadership style. Chapter 7 focuses more on how to use technology to accommodate teams working “virtually” i.e. at a distance. Several challenges they mention hadn’t occurred to me: an unequal distribution of team members so that the majority of members are in one location while a few others are spread out at other locations: this can cause cultural/personal problems as members can feel excluded. The authors explore a suite of technology as well as how to effectively lead and prepare a team for virtual collaboration so that teams have the highest level of success possible.
Nembhard, I. M., & Edmondson, A. C. (2009). Making It Safe: The Effects of Leader Inclusiveness and Professional Status on Psychological Safety and Improvement Efforts in Health Care Teams. Elaborating Professionalism, 77-105. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2605-7_5 Leadership inclusiveness is defined as the “words and deeds exhibited by leaders that invite and appreciate others contributions”. The concept of leadership inclusiveness is exemplified in an inpatient medical team setting, where physicians, nurses, patient technicians, therapists, and other ancillary staff all have specific but interconnected roles and ideally work closely to provide the best treatment possible. Professional hierarchies and status differences between physician and non-physician staff and within different physician disciplines are well known. Many people require psychological safety, defined as “being able to show and employ one's self without fear of negative consequences of self-image, status or career” to speak out and offer their opinions. Leadership inclusiveness is key to making a medical team psychologically safe.
Nembhard, I. M., & Edmondson, A. C. (2009). Making It Safe: The Effects of Leader Inclusiveness and Professional Status on Psychological Safety and Improvement Efforts in Health Care Teams.  Elaborating Professionalism, 77-105. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2605-7_5 I find this construct of leader inclusiveness to make a very valid point with regard to process improvements. While some models of leadership may evaluate a single individual, it is also important that a leader collaborates with others in order to create an environment where people feel comfortable in process improvements. With regard to health care, the importance of leader collaboration across varying health care teams can save lives. The article points out that 70-80% of medical errors are related to interactions within the health care team. I noticed this firsthand when my father was admitted to Riverside after Thanksgiving. There was a total lack of communication in his care and if I had not been there to advocate for my father and communicate across their care teams, I feel that his quality of care would have been much worse. The article also points out the entrenched status hierarchy that exists in the health care field and how this makes it difficult for collaboration to occur across professional boundaries. I can understand that as I am a clinical research coordinator at the James so I feel that I am on the low end of the totem pole when it comes to the patient’s care. The article mentions a study that was performed on malpractice that revealed physicians ignored important information about patients when it came form the nurse who would be considered to have a lower status than the physician.
Nemeth, C. J. (1986). Differential contributions of majority and minority influence.  Psychological review ,  93 (1), 23. This article discusses the difference between the outcomes of listening to a predominant majority voice versus including a minority voice in making decisions in a group. It highlights that minority voices tend to have a different perspective and different ideas than the majority voice and by including these ideas, workplaces can benefit. The article points out that whether these ideas are right or wrong, they force a group to consider different options that may not be explored if only the majority voice is being heard. This can result in improved problem solving and decision making within an organization. This article was very beneficial to read as it highlights how important it is to have diversity in the workplace as it can drive creative solutions, good problem-solving, and innovation.
Newman, A., Donohue, R., & Eva, N. (2017). Psychological safety: A systematic review of the literature. Human Resource Management Review, 27(3), 521-535. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.01.001 This is a meta-analysis of the psychological safety literature published in 2017 that included literature from 1990-2015. Studies mainly focused on the antecedents and outcomes of psychological safety, individual level vs group/team vs organizational level measures, and measurement critique. Psychological safety is felt to be more applicable at an individual/group level as opposed to an organizational level, unless the organization is small. Many of the antecedents are grouped under supportive environments. Psychological safety is the mechanism by which supportive environments transmit desirable outcomes by leading to more knowledge sharing, engagement, creativity, innovation. In hazardous work environments speaking up and providing feedback is important to reduce errors and improve safety. Strong task environments that motivate learning increase the effects of psychological safety on performance and learning. Personal beliefs and attitudes are important. Interestingly, high levels of psychological safety intensify the positive relationship between team expertise diversity and team performance and mitigate the negative effects of geographical dispersion, electronic dependence, dynamic structure, and national diversity on team innovation. The 2 main theories as to how psychological safety develops and influences work outcomes focus on social learning theory and social exchange theory.
Norredam, M., Album, D. (2007). Prestige and its significance for medical specialties and diseases. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2007; 35: 655–661 This is a more modern study looking at why some medical specialties are seen with more prestige than others. It does not rank order certain specialties like the Schwartzbaum article but does conclude that specialties that needed more time invested for training, higher rigor of training, having measurable skills, hands-on, and specialized medicine are all characteristics that contribute to prestige in medicine.
Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Ltd. I think it is helpful to include some discussion on how teams function together with respect to leadership. I will incorporate Northouse’s team-based structure in order to analyze how teams should be sharing leadership in order to function at their highest performance. This is very relatable to health care as most health care settings now include these cross-disciplinary teams that rely on one another to treat the patient. Obviously, if these teams are not working together properly, patients lives are at stake.
Northouse, P. G. (2016).  Leadership: Theory and practice . Sage publications. This book details the many different leadership theories that have been developed and studied. This information is applicable to the chapter I am writing as leaders need to utilize different skills to effectively promote diversity within their organizations. I am not convinced that there is a single leadership practice that can effectively improve an organization’s commitment to diversity, therefore, I plan to focus on the following types of leadership: situational, leader-member-exchange, transformational, and authentic leadership. I will use the information provided by Northouse discussing each of these theories and what characteristics leaders need to embody these forms of leadership and apply them to improving workplace diversity. For example, using situational leadership, leaders will need to base their style on the commitment of their employees to diversity and their employees’ level of cultural competence.
Northouse, P. G. (2016).  Leadership: Theory and practice.  Sage publications.
Northouse, P. G. (2018). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. A beginning, and for its purposes, yet comprehensive textbook regarding multiple leadership theories and styles with informative background and practical information regarding each theory and style.
Norwich University. (n.d.). Infographics Master of Science in Leadership Big Data’s Growing Role in Organizational Leadership & Development . This source provides unique infographics to display consumer behavior and market trends and perception of big-data. This infographic is filled with useful data and information that can be used to support my chapter. I think the most interesting take away is the gap between senior executive’s desire to utilize big data in their organization and their action or support towards creating a culture that empowers and supports big-data use. There are many business innovation challenges that are addressed in this infographic. It seems difficult for organizations to engage members towards creative and innovative problem solving because they are often stuck in routine or their company culture does not support this. This sort of “false” support is a strong barrier towards effectively embracing big-data. I will turn to this source for the thorough quantitative information. However, this source is lacking in solutions to the problems that exist in this realm.
Oliver, S. (2006). Leadership in health care. Musculoskeletal Care , 4 (1), 38-47. This article briefly discusses some aspects of leadership that are common among leaders. It specifically addresses skills that are important for leaders within health care, how to become an effective leader, and how to work with teams. Some of the skills the article highlights are the ability to explore personal and team motives in accomplishing a vision of success, ability to be critical of team processes and outcomes on the path to achieving a goal, and a constant fine tuning of self in response to the needs of the team and its individuals. This article discusses briefly how health care has evolved and its effects on leaders have had to change to keep up. The article has a short description of some of the different leadership styles common to health care and discusses how certain qualities from the different styles are required for different tasks. The article wraps up by mentioning management of change and some of its associated challenges.
Ortega, A., Bossche, P. V., Sánchez-Manzanares, M., Rico, R., & Gil, F. (2013). The Influence of Change-Oriented Leadership and Psychological Safety on Team Learning in Healthcare Teams. Journal of Business and Psychology. doi:10.1007/s10869-013-9315-8 This article focuses specifically on hospital based healthcare teams and how change oriented leadership affects the learning process and outcomes. Change oriented leadership is defined as “focuses on leading major innovative improvements and adaptation to external changes, and is related to change management and the coping and adaptation methods of organizations in turbulent environments”. Change oriented leaders have 4 specific sets of behaviors: monitoring the environment, encouraging innovative thinking, envisioning change, and taking risks for change. Leaders need to create the social and cognitive conditions within their teams to ensure learning behavior among members. Like many of the other articles, this work found a mediating effect between learning, leadership, performance, and psychological safety.
Oser, C. B., Biebel, E. P., Pullen, E., & Harp, K. L. H. (2013). Causes, consequences, and prevention of burnout among substance abuse treatment counselors: A rural versus urban comparison.  Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45 (1), 17-27. 10.1080/02791072.2013.763558
Osland, J., & Turner, M. (2011). The organizational behavior reader. Pearson, 8th Edition I found this chapter to be incredibly valuable in understanding why it can be so difficult to change an organization’s cultural identity. This chapter discusses that there are 3 main levels of culture in any situation. The visible level is called the artifacts; this is what people see and hear from a group. To understand these artifacts requires an understanding of the basic assumptions of the group. Prior to reaching the basic assumptions level, there is the espoused values. This is how a group decides to deal with a problem. Someone suggests how to solve a problem and if it results in a successful solution, the group begins to see this solution as ‘real and good’ and will continue to gain support. Continued success of these espoused values will result in the adoption of a basic assumption. This is the level that results in ‘the implicit assumptions that guide behavior…that tell a group how to perceive, think, and feel about things’. This is the most deeply ingrained level of culture and when it is challenged can result in anxiety and defensiveness in the group. Reading this chapter helped me to make sense of why an organization’s culture is defined in a certain way and why that identity can be so difficult to change. Possessing this understanding is valuable to any leader as it can prepare them for the sensitivity that they will need to have with their followers when they are working to change the workplace culture. This knowledge will also help to manage expectations regarding the time that is needed to effect change.
Paquin, H., Bank, I., Young, M., Nguyen, L. H., Fisher, R., & Nugus, P. (2017). Leadership in crisis situations: merging the interdisciplinary silos. emeraldinsight , 110-128. Complicated clinical situations that lead different specialists to merge their training in an unorganized and uncommon situation have different leadership needs. In predictable cases specialists can almost work in solidarity without interference or help from other specialties, once the situation becomes unstructured the need for distributed and coordinative leadership. Distributed leadership is the process of taking the responsibility of different roles, in the case of a surgery different physicians would be in charge of different organs. This still provides challenges, such as combining the differing functions into a united combined effort. Differing specialties proved useful in aligning roles easily based on usual functions outside of a crisis, this is shown not to be the case when one or more of the individuals is not an attending but rather a resident. In this scenario seniority does matter, it is proven difficult for the resident to take charge of a situation even when their specialty correlates more directly with the skills needed over the other senior staff. “Transitions of leadership should occur after critical situations have subsided, never within it, or when one’s expertise is surpassed”, this reinstates that leadership is generally static but is adaptable to becoming fluid.  
Park-Lee, E., Lipari, R.N., Hedden, S.L., Kroutil, L.A., & Porter, J.D. (2017). Receipt of services for substance use and mental health issues among adults: Results from the 2016 NSDUH. NSDUH Data Review: September 2017.
Parris, D., & Peachey, J. (2013). A Systematic Literature Review of Servant Leadership Theory in Organizational Contexts. Journal Of Business Ethics , 113 (3), 377-393. This article is a literature review of studies done about servant leadership. The review includes 39 studies which all tried to answer the questions, how does servant leadership work and how can we apply it? The general consensus of the 39 studies was that there was no agreed upon definition of servant leadership and that there is still more research to be done. One of my favorite definitions that is quoted in the article is from Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, “It begins with the natural feeling one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first.” The article also concludes that there are a lot of measures being used to explore servant leadership and that servant leadership theory is a viable leadership theory with plenty of room for exploration.
Pines, A., & Maslach, C. (1978). Characteristics of staff burnout in mental health settings.  Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 29 (4), 233-237.
Poillon, F. (Ed.) (1999 November). To err is human: building a safer health system, The Institute of Medicine. Retrieved from Much of the literature on safety culture in healthcare references this 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The IOM’s report sought to examine the dangers of medical errors and to address issues that cause medical errors. The report details the detrimental impacts of medical errors including patient deaths, financial impacts, and loss of trust in the healthcare industry. The IOM report identifies major issues in medical systems including: lack of communication among providers, lack of incentives for improving quality and safety, and flawed systems. The report distinguishes that rather than individual errors, most medical errors are a result of system-wide issues. The report encourages national level changes including: a federal level focus on improving patient safety, mandated reporting of medical errors, improvements to standards of care on a national level, and a culture of safety across all medical institutions. As the report was published in 1999, much of the healthcare safety measures implemented in nearly the past two decades are based off of the recommendations made in this report.
Porter, M.E. & Teisberg, E. O. (2016) Cleveland Clinic: Transformation and Growth 2015. Harvard Business School. In their review of the changes made at the Cleveland Clinic for the Harvard Business School, Porter and Treisberg emphasize the importance of working in teams in the healthcare field. After Delos M. Cosgrove, M.D. became the Clinic’s CEO in October 2004 he instituted many changes, starting with a stronger emphasis on patient care and satisfaction. He also reorganized departments from medical/surgical classifications to teams focused on specific organs or organ systems and developed 106 “care pathways.” While this initiative began as a way to improve the patient experience, it blossomed into the formation of multidisciplinary care teams who were more cost and time efficient while also delivering a better patient experience. As a result, operating costs for the Clinic went down, patient satisfaction went up, and several other major hospital systems began adopting this model. Not emphasized in this review of the Cleveland Clinic but something I hope to find more information about is the management teams responsible for communicating information between the geographically dispersed hospitals that make up the Cleveland Clinic network.
Puga, F., Stevens, K. R., & Patel, D. I. (January 01, 2013). Adopting Best Practices from Team Science in a Healthcare Improvement Research Network: The Impact on Dissemination and Implementation.  Nursing Research and Practice, 2013,  1, 1-7. Puga et al. begin by describing the value of transdisciplinary teams in healthcare as it “brings together a diverse group of individuals who fully integrate theories, methodologies, and frameworks from their respective fields to work as a cohesive unit on complex issues.” The authors go on to outline the need for additional resources to improve communications and “refine relationships” so that the newly formed teams are effective. The paper puts forth a well-thought-out and very promising theoretical framework for implementing a transdisciplinary model in healthcare and adapted from the Science of Team Science Framework as described by Olson (not included in this annotated bibliography but a resource I plan to use in the final chapter) which consists of four main components: readiness for collaboration, a shared mental model, management and planning, and virtual readiness.
Qarani, W. Tranformational Leadership. (2017). A Strategy Towards Staff Motivation. I-manager’s Journal on Nursing . 7(1) 9-15. Transformational leadership fosters staff motivation and retention. It is the marriage between directing and providing opportunities for development and learning and therefore creating a shared sense of responsibility and greater motivation to stay with the profession. Four main concepts from Doody and Doody 2012 are individualized consideration (provide empowerment, guidance, development opportunities, providing a sense of value, praise, fair workload, career planning), intellectual stimulation (encouragement, welcome of new ideas, creativity, encourage reasoning in decision making), inspirational motivation (set a vision that is in the best interest of the staff, physically and mentally engaged in their purpose, motivation factors by Herzberg include: recognition, advancement, growth and development, and responsibility), and idealized influence(role modeling, reflecting expectations and symbolizing values, mission and vision).
Rahim M. Toward a Theory of Managing Organizational Conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management. 2002;13(3):206-235. In this article review the author discusses different methods to manage organizational conflict and highlights the importance of conflict management as a mean to enhance organizational learning. He lists different strategies to address conflict management, including importance of minimizing affective and relationship conflicts as these types of conflict may lead team members to become negative and resentful. He then stresses on the importance of maintaining substantive conflict which is rather beneficial in making better decisions and lead to higher performing groups. He then describes different styles of behaviors which can be used to deal with conflict.  In this article, he outlines organizational problem-solving process and methods for addressing conflict management at an organizational level. I feel that this article is of importance to my chapter as it provides a detailed review and step by step approach to understand and manage conflicts which may arise at organization level through different angles of approach methodology.
Randel, A. E., Dean, M. A., Ehrhart, K. H., Chung, B., & Shore, L. (2016). Leader inclusiveness, psychological diversity climate, and helping behaviors. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(1), 216-234. doi:10.1108/jmp-04-2013-0123 This research article focuses on leadership inclusiveness in the context of the “psychological diversity climate” and workers willingness to engage in behaviors to help the leader or overall workgroup. Psychological diversity climate is defined as “the extent that a firm promotes equal employment opportunity and inclusion.” This article is unique in that it tests this more specifically by gender and racioethnic minorities. Selection of diverse individuals is important in realizing the full potential of the workforce. To realize this full potential diverse individuals need to be able to participate and contribute fully. Women and racioethnic minorities may not feel signals of inclusiveness and it has been suggested that they place greater value on the organization’s commitment to diversity. The study found that leadership inclusiveness in the context of a positive psychological diversity climate is associated with enhanced leader-directed and work group-directed helping behavior. This relationship was stronger for racioethnic minorities and women with respect to leader-directed helping behavior.
Reeleder, D., Goel, V., Singer, PA., Martin, DK. (2006). Leadership and priority setting: the perspective of hospital CEOs. Health Policy . 79(1): 24-34. This article is a compilation of interview data with multiple hospital CEOs. From these interviews, the researchers were able to identify trends in priority setting. Five domains of priority setting were identified including: vision, alignment, relationships, values, and processes. Using information in this article, my intention is to look at how the hospital goals set from the top are able to trickle down to increase morale for the front line staff. Especially exploring how employee safety is ranked in priority setting and its positive or negative effects on staff morale and trust. Hospitals are complex working environments with many layers of priorities. Care and commitment to staff wellness and safety can be transformed into better outcomes for patient care and higher patient satisfaction.
Roberts, M., MD, MPH. (2018, March 9). Leadership Story of Mysheika Roberts, MD [Telephone Interview]. As a young, African American woman, Dr. Mysheika Roberts has persevered to become a prominent leader in the realm of public health in Columbus, Ohio. Dr. Roberts currently serves as Health Commissioner and Medical Director of Columbus Public Health, previously served as Assistant Health Commissioner at Columbus Public Health, and serves on several boards that promote health throughout Columbus. She has been leading in some capacity since high school so she has had plenty of leadership experiences throughout her relatively short career thus far but she is nowhere near the ‘end’ as she reminded us that leadership is journey that is never over. She expressed her belief in the importance of leaders taking a stand for what they believe in and making their actions reflect those beliefs. She also shared her approach to working with a team of individuals to achieve a common goal and her approach to leading change.
Roman, P. M., Ducharme, L. J., & Knudsen, H. K. (2006).  Patterns of organization and management in private and public substance abuse treatment programs Like the D’Aunno (2006) study, the authors intended to fuel further research in the organizational behavior and leadership of substance use (at the time referred to as substance abuse ) treatment. The longitudinal study utilized data from the National Treatment Center Study at the University of Georgia from public and private sector treatment centers (n = 766). The authors used this data to highlight differences of substance use treatment delivery between public and private sectors. Of particular interest, the study used t-tests to measure differences in terms of familiarity of treatments as a way to gauge diffusion of innovations. While these findings would no longer be accurate as 12 years have passed, the general pattern of findings may be. In every medically assisted treatment (MAT) the public sector counselors were more familiar of the effectiveness of the listed treatment (p values ranging from p < .05 to p < .001). This could be helpful for directors and counseling managers in private sectors who may need to ensure staff are familiar and trained on best practices. Counterintuitive to these findings, private sector treatment centers consistently offered more MAT, perhaps due to cost.
Rondeau, K. V. (1992). Constructive Performance Appraisal Feedback for Healthcare Employees. Hospital Topics, 70 (2), 27-33. Retrieved from: Rondeau discusses how feedback or “appraisals” are often the most dreaded part of the leader’s job and the employee’s day. Because employees tend to overinflate their performance and leaders have to deliver the news that they are not performing as well as they should, it can often lead to a power struggle between the two. While this article is the most dated, it adds value to show why feedback is often a struggle for leaders but offers suggestions on how to make it less painful.
Rowitz, L. (2013).  Public health leadership . Jones & Bartlett Publishers. This chapter provided insight about the importance of cultural competency in the public health workforce and within public health organizations. Understanding the cultural traditions and norms of a community in need of public health services, allows a public health organization to engender trust from community members while also helping them to identify a community’s specific needs. This chapter is really clear on characteristics that are necessary for a public health leader to successfully embrace and promote diversity. They should be aware of their own cultural background and the biases against other cultures that come with it. They need to possess empathy and sensitivity toward other backgrounds, to respect cultural differences, to have a willingness to receive feedback (both positive and negative), and to possess the desire to be a ‘lifelong learner’. Cultural sensitivity does not happen overnight. We all have our own biases that can be strengths and weaknesses. The willingness to be self-aware and receive feedback when we aren’t ‘doing it right’ will allow for understanding to develop and change to occur through action. Cultural competency must occur on an individual level before it can be present on an organizational and community level. Leaders must be willing to demonstrate what they want to see in an organization and then promote this behavior in their employees through recognition and reinforcement.
Rowitz, L. (2014). Public Health Leadership. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Learning. This citation adds two more steps to managing a crisis, a pre catastrophe step which is the act of watching for a sign of the crisis, and the last step being crisis resolution. This last stage is overcoming and adapting to the changes the catastrophe left in its wake, rarely do circumstances revert back to normal with no changes. The crisis impact scale is a model which forecasts the level of a crisis, taking into account different variables and the weight that is put on them. This allows customizability in the scale to better suit the circumstances of each individual case. These factors include; Intensity escalation, media and/or government scrutiny, effects on the operation of the organization, the image of the business/community, and financial effect. The scoring for each variable is from 0 (low risk) to 10 (high) and these numbers are then added together and divided by the number of factors. The closer the score is to 10, the worse the crisis. The ability to forecast a crisis does not mean we can predict a crisis or the outcome, most of this knowledge is used to “type” a catastrophe; be it Economic, informational, physical, human resource, reputational, psychopathic, or a natural disaster. 
Saeed T, Almas S, Anis-Ul-Haq M, Niazi GSK. Leadership Styles: Relationship with Conflict Management Styles. International Journal of Conflict Management. 2014;25(3):214-225. This study examined the relationship between leadership styles and conflict management styles among managers while they addressed interpersonal conflicts. The authors found that managers who used more transformational leadership assumed an integrating and obliging style of conflict management. Those who used more transactional leadership chose comprising style of conflict management. Lastly, managers who used laissez-faire leadership used the avoiding style of conflict management. The authors of this study state that organizations should train their leaders to focus more on people management. This will in turn lead to a stronger team structure and build trust within the team that will allow the team members to more effectively manage their conflicts. I feel this study is good for my pressbook chapter because it addresses mid-level management and how their leadership styles can affect the type of conflict management style they use.
Schwartzbaum, A. M., Mcgrath, J. H., & Rothman, R. A. (1973). The perception of prestige differences among medical subspecialities. Social Science & Medicine (1967), 7(5), 365-371. doi:10.1016/0037-7856(73)90045-0 This study is probably somewhat outdated, but I think it is still interesting. It ranks many different medical specialties by prestige on various sets of factors and includes opinions by students, faculty, and medical staff. Although an older study I think that if redone the results would be similar.
Schyns, B., Elverfeldt, A. V., & Felfe, J. (2008).  Is there a male advantage in the effects of feedback and leadership on leaders’ occupational self‐efficacy?  Retrieved from: The focus of this article is on the effects of leadership and feedback on the occupational self-efficacy of male and female managers.  Of note, it points out that female’s style of leadership and the type of feedback received could be of conflict to one-another.
Seligman, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, M.. (2000). Positive Psychology: An Introduction. The American psychologist. 55. 5-14. 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5. Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) found its roots in the positive psychology movement. In order to fully understand what POB is and how it plays a role in palliative care, it is important to understand the foundations in which POB sprouted from. This article speaks to the new psychological view made popular by Dr. Martin Seligman. He argued that there was another side to psychology, a side that didn’t only look at deficits, and trying to fix what is wrong. Seligman argued that it was possible to get away from a model of treating illness, if we focused on utilizing strengths, optimism, and individual we could prevent illness in the first place. It was this focus on utilizing peoples’ strengths that led to the beginnings of the POB movement. This is a model that really resonates with me. Almost all of the work that I do is in secondary prevention efforts, and we utilize many positive psychology approaches in the interventions that I use for alcohol and other drug interventions. Our goal is to motivate positive change. Through our readings, and my own definition of leadership, I have found that much of leadership is motivating a group of people toward a positive change some fashion. Due to the fundamental connection in definition and practice it is only logical that there would be some parallels in positive psychology and leadership.
Sendjaya, S. (2015). Personal and organizational excellence through servant leadership: Learning to serve, serving to lead, leading to transform . This book defines and discusses the theory of servant leadership. A servant leader is one who puts their followers first, the organization second, and themselves third. The book provides some research on servant leadership including its origin, development, and effects on both the leader and the followers. The book provides some of the pushback on servant leadership and why some people do not agree with it. It also has a section which compares servant leadership to some other leadership theories, such as transformational, authentic, and spiritual leadership. One of the definitions from the book that I found particularly fitting for our chapter describes servant leadership as an “approach that reflects an internal orientation of the heart to serve others.” This definition is fitting for most of the leaders in our chapter because of the nature of health care and public health professionals and their passion to serve the population.
Sepúlveda, C., Marlin, A., Yoshida, T., & Ullrich, A. (2002). Palliative care: the World Health Organization's global perspective.  Journal of pain and symptom management ,  24 (2), 91-96. The primary purpose of this article was to obtain a working definition of palliative care for the use of further research. One point I found interesting was that previously palliative care had been viewed in terms of care given to terminally ill patients in the last stages of their lives. However, the WHO recognized the importance of using palliative care methods as early as possible in situations where patients are suffering from a chronic illness that will ultimately lead to fatality. Something that I found to be promising in the definition of palliative care was the broadening of the definition to include more than just pain relief. More current definitions include physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of not only patients, but of their families as well. This shows the importance of palliative care teams to demonstrate a wide range of skills, and training to engage in proper palliative care. WHO also recommends that palliative healthcare takes into consideration the well-being of caregivers as well. This would lead one to consider implementing Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) practices in palliative care settings to promote the well-being of caregivers, and in turn improve patient care and quality of life.
Sfantou, D., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A., Pistolla, D. S., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017). Importance of Leadership Style towards Quality of Care Measures in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review. Healthcare,5 (4), 73. doi:10.3390/healthcare5040073 This abstract analyzes research that has been performed on the relationship between leadership and style in healthcare settings and quality of care. The authors conclude that leadership styles play an important role in predicting quality measures in the health care setting and in nursing. Transformational leadership is viewed as the most effective management that helps to establish a culture of safety. I think this would be beneficial to include in the end of my chapter as a sort of “solution” to help resolve medical errors in the health care setting.
Shaw W.S., Reme S.E., Boot C.R.L. (2012). Health and Wellness Promotion in the Workplace. In: Gatchel R., Schultz I. (eds) Handbook of Occupational Health and Wellness. Handbooks in Health, Work, and Disability. Springer, Boston, MA This specific chapter in this book speaks of the complicated issues that employees face in the workplace, both physical and mental. The article breaks down six worksite wellness themes that include: dietary and physical activity interventions, smoking cessation interventions, health-risk appraisal and tailored health advice, comprehensive wellness programs, integration of workplace health and safety policies and practices, and economic evidence. Employer policies and culture both have activities that leaders can help promote including accommodations to facilitate a safe work environment, support and encouragement, and training to respond to health-related issues. Some different benefits of employers investing the money into implementing an employee wellness program may appeal to potential employees or aid in employee retention. It may also place a sense of trust in the employer for the commitment of health to their employees. Integrated wellness is a way that the employer can incorporate many facets of employee health. These may include: disease and injury prevention, health promotion, stress reduction, symptom management, and accommodations to age, family, and life stage. This approach takes certain people out of silos in order to work together for a common goals of wellness.
Sherman, R. (2012). Patient Satisfaction now Factors into Medicare Reimbursement. American Nurse Today . 7(10). HCAHPS (Health Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) surveys show the perception of quality performance. 30% of the decision for Medicare and Medicaid rests on these performance surveys for reimbursement to hopsitals.
Shore, L. M., Randel, A. E., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., Ehrhart, K. H., & Singh, G. (2010). Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1262-1289. doi:10.1177/0149206310385943 This article begins by touching on the Optimal Distinctiveness Theory. This is a theory that seeks to understand the in-group and out-group differences. This says that individuals desire to attain an optimal balance of inclusion and distinctiveness within and between social groups and situations. Belongingness and uniqueness work together to create feelings of inclusion. When an individual attains high levels of both he or she is treated as an insider and encouraged to retain uniqueness within the working group. The articles presents a 2x2 table that outlines high/low belongingness and uniqueness. For individuals to feel included there typically need to be high levels of both. There are many antecedents in the subcategories of leadership, climate and practice that lead to outcomes of high quality relations, satisfaction, performance, commitment and citizenship, well being, creativity, and career opportunities.
Singer, S. J., & Vogus, T. J. (2013). Reducing Hospital Errors: Interventions that Build Safety Culture.  Annual Review of Public Health,34 (1), 373-396. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114439 In depth review on interventions that can help encourage a culture of safety. Transformational leadership seeks to have individuals collaborate with one another for the common goal of patient safety. This leadership style has been shown to be the most effective in creating the best culture of safety for patients.
Slawomirski, L., Auraaen, A., & Klazinga, N. (2017, March). The Economics of Patient Safety: Strengthening a Value-based Approach to Reducing Patient Harm at National Level. Retrieved from Offers an insight into the economic burden that medical errors have on our society. Also includes the adverse events that are the most costly in our society.
Slocum-Gori, S., Hemsworth, D., Chan, W., Carson, A., Kazanjian, A. (2011), Understanding Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue and Burnout: A survey of the hospice palliative care workforce. Palliative Medicine. Vol 27, Issue 2, pp. 172 – 178. This article does a great job of outlining the impacts of stressors on burnout in palliative healthcare workers, and the impacts that compassion fatigue have on burnout in staff. One thing that I found surprising from this article is that palliative healthcare workers do not typically experience higher rates of stress and burnout relative to their non-palliative healthcare peers, but the stressors that they experience are much different. The researchers do a great job of exploring the impacts of both compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction and the role that plays in their burnout. The introduction of this article is very strong and has a lot of information to offer as well as connects the reader to other sources to learn more about the stressors in palliative healthcare, compassion fatigue, and burnout as a whole.
Solansky, S. T. (2010). The evaluation of two key leadership development program components: Leadership skills assessment and leadership mentoring. This is a very interesting article looking at leadership development including skills assessment and mentoring feedback.  Of note, the difference between self-assessments and observer-assessments were statistically different from one-another.  These results would likely be beneficial for the chapter.
Sportsman S, Hamilton P. Conflict Management Styles in the Health Professions. Journal of Professional Nursing. May-June 2007;23(3):157-166. This study looked at conflict management styles chosen by students in different health professions. The authors of this study compared the conflict management styles that were common among nursing students and compared/contrasted them to conflict management styles used by students in allied health professions. The authors also analyzed the level of the student’s education and compared that to the chosen conflict management style. The study found that there was no significant difference between the conflict management styles used by nurses and other health professionals. The study also found that the level of education did not have a significant difference in the student’s preferred conflict management styles. I feel that this study contributes to my chapter because it shows that our future health care leaders, regardless of health care discipline, all may have the potential for conflict management. Even though there was no difference in the styles chosen by the different student groups, I feel that it is helpful to know that each group possessed a type of style.
Stadolnik, E. M. (2014). Data leadership : Defining the expertise your organization needs. This source gave a quality overview of the key data roles and responsibilities of a data-driven company. The beginning focused on the shift in the past few years towards leading organizations leveraging data and analytics to generate insight in a more dynamic way. Next, the authors took time to discuss implied capabilities of a qualified data-leader. The four primary leadership profiles for data analytics, Chief Data Officer, Data Scientist, Analytics, Data Management, were then investigated for the specific qualities that defined a successful candidate or involved employee. I particularly think the perspective on what qualities are important in each respective role will be useful for my research. One of the qualities that spanned most of the roles was an attitude of viewing problems and progress as an ongoing and iterative process. This aligns closely with other readings and other literature in this field.
Stein, J., et al. (2014). Reorganizing a hospital ward as an accountable care unit. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 10(1), 36-40. doi:10.1002/jhm.2284 Traditional hospital wards are not specifically designed as effective clinical microsystems. This articles details how to redesign a hospital ward into a more effective clinical microsystem, which they term and “accountable care unit”. This is done by redesigning (1) unit-based teams, (2) structured interdisciplinary bedside rounds, (3) unit-level performance reporting, and (4) unit-level nurse and physician coleadership.
Stobbe, M. (2017). Today’s opioid crisis shares chilling similarities with past drug epidemics. The Chicago Tribune . Retrieved from nationworld/ct-drug-epidemics-history-20171028-story.html
Stokols, D., Hall, K. L., Taylor, B. K. (2008) The Science of Team Science: Overview of the Field and Introduction to the Supplement . American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 35(2): pp.77-89. Stokols et al. tackle the tricky task of defining different types of teams: cross-disciplinary (integrate concepts, methods, and theories drawn from two or more fields), multidisciplinary (scholars from disparate fields work independently or sequentially, periodically coming together to share their individual perspectives for purposes of addressing a common research interest), interdisciplinary (team members not only combine or juxtapose concepts and methods drawn from their different fields, but also work more intensively to integrate their divergent perspectives), and transdisciplinary (team members representing different fields work together over extended periods to develop shared conceptual and methodologic frameworks that not only integrate but also transcend their respective disciplinary perspectives). These definitions are an important foundation for the study of teams and team science.
Stoller, J. K. (2009). Developing Physician-Leaders: A Call to Action.  Journal of General Internal Medicine,24 (7), 876-878. doi:10.1007/s11606-009-1007-8 The article builds a rationale for why developing physician leaders is important. Today, health care organizations face complex and dynamic environments. We continuously are introduced to more and more technology, but the effectiveness of those technological devices is not always clear. It is difficult to manage a professional workforce. And lastly, a lot of times, goals of different stakeholders within a healthcare organization can be competing. In addition to the health care organization itself posing a challenging environment for leaders, the article suggests that physicians, due to the nature of their training and history, might be “disinclined to collaborate or to follow,” which are important characteristics of leaders. The article also touches on the fact that advancement on the medical side is often tied to improving clinical, or academic skills, not leadership skills and competencies. Lastly, the article discusses that little is being done to improve physician leadership skills at the time of the study. Therefore, it is important that more emphasis is being placed on physician leadership training and physician leader development, so that they can respond to the many different challenges surrounding them.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Top Health Issues for LGBT Populations Information & Resource Kit. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4684. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012. LGBT communities face higher rates of substance use and increased rates of anxiety, depression and other mental health disorders. Further, LGBT individuals are more likely to commit suicide, experience homelessness and have higher rates of HIV and other STIs. This publication provides guidance and resources for health care professionals serving LGBT community members.
Swanson, J. W. (2004). Diversity. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 28(3), 207-211. doi:10.1097/00006216-200407000-00009 This article is interesting in that the author is both an RN and PhD. It lays forth 3 criteria that must be met for an organization to succeed in creating a culture of diversity and inclusiveness. Organizations and leaders must be self-aware to their reactions to those that may find themselves in the out-group. You must be aware of your prejudices and biases. Leaders need to be able to expand their perspectives to not only understand but also appreciate others. This is done by staying in the present, increasing comfort level with ambiguity, decreasing distortion, and choose actions that support the desired outcomes. This is important in conflict resolution. Leaders and organizations need to be open to exploring different possibilities and scenarios within their functioning environment. Diversity is empowered by open dialogue, exploring differences while seeking commonalities, listening, risk being vulnerable, and celebrating uniqueness.
Tarantine, R. (2017 December 6). How to create a culture of safety in health care and beyond, HuffPost. Retrieved from This article defines a culture of safety as an organizational ideology, which prioritizes safety over financial gain or benefit. The author reinforces a theme discussed by many other articles in this annotated bibliography, which is that a culture of safety must stem from leadership behavior. Additionally, she asserts that a safety culture is a conscious effort both on the part of the employee and the part of the leaders. Unlike other articles, the author states that the responsibility for a culture of safety also relies on patient engagement to report safety concerns.
Taylor, C. A., Taylor, J. C., & Stoller, J. K. (2008). Exploring Leadership Competencies in Established and Aspiring Physician Leaders: An Interview-based Study.  Journal of General Internal Medicine,23 (6), 748-754. doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0565-5 This qualitative study was carried out at the Cleveland Clinic to further examine the leadership needs of aspiring, as well as established leaders. The study specifically considers what knowledge, skills, and attitudes are needed for leaders, and what kind of experiences lead to improving and developing leadership skills. It also poses the question if those skills can be learned. The authors of the study used structured interview questions and grouped responses into overarching themes. The results were that people thought that leaders should have knowledge, people skills, emotional intelligence and a vision. Leaders that were considered “established” additionally emphasized the importance of organizational orientation. The study also touches on the point that while some things might be innate, like vision, energy, caring and empathy, others are teachable, like dealing with groups, or learning about certain subjects like finance.
Thach, E. C. (2002). The impact of executive coaching and 360-degree feedback on leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23 (4), 205-214. doi:10.1108/01437730210429070. Retrieved from: This article assesses the effectiveness of utilizing the 360-degree feedback tool to improve leadership. The study used a pre/post design and found leadership effectiveness was improved by up to 60%. The study included 281 executives and tracked their progress over 6 months. There are some limitations in this study such as the short amount of follow up time but overall this study is helpful to include in this chapter because it shows the usefulness of the 360-degree feedback tool.
The essential role of leadership in developing a safety culture. (2017 March 1). The Joint Commission Sentinel Event Alert (57). Retrieved from The Joint Commission is a national accreditation organization for healthcare organizations throughout the country. This article published by the Joint Commission implores healthcare leaders to focus on a culture of safety just as much as a focus on any other leadership topic such as finances or business growth. This article focuses on the importance of integrating safety measures into every day activities and maintaining this in all circumstances so as to model the importance of safety to the organization. Similarly, all safety measures and changes must be implemented in a systematic way. Additionally, it is essential that leaders create an atmosphere in which reporting safety events is encouraged and celebrated to prevent individuals being fearful of reporting safety concerns. Leaders are also urged to maintain transparency and to model learning from safety incidents, rather than punishing those involved. Another focus for leaders should be on separating human errors and systematic errors to allow for appropriate intervention. This article is a strong source of information due to the timeliness and the concrete examples of how to implement a safety culture.
Tsui, A. S., Egan, T. D., & O'Reilly III, C. A. (1992). Being different: Relational demography and organizational attachment.  Administrative science quarterly , 549-579. This article discusses how individuals are more likely to gravitate toward others that are ‘like’ them demographically in the workplace. It discusses the reasoning behind this-increased trust, increased ability to relate, reinforcement of self, etc. This was valuable for my chapter in terms of discussing leader-member exchange theory. It reinforces that there may be a hurdle that a leader might need to overcome if they find themselves more likely to include ‘like’ employees in their in-group then employees who are culturally or demographically different. This is especially important when trying to create a more culturally diverse workplace.
Tucker, A. L., & Edmondson, A. C. (2003). Why Hospitals Dont Learn from Failures: Organizational and Psychological Dynamics That Inhibit System Change.  California Management Review,45 (2), 55-72. doi:10.2307/41166165 Tucker and Edmonson analyzed 239 hours of observation and 26 nurses at 9 different hospitals in order to understand the importance of the relationship between organizational learning and process failures. The hospitals that were selected were referred by nursing governing boards for being hospitals that processed reputations for nursing excellence. The result revealed that nurses experienced 5 broad based problems including missing or incorrect information, missing or broken equipment, waiting for a human or equipment resource, missing or incorrect supplies, and simultaneous demands of their time.
Turner, S., Merchant, K., Kania, J., & Martin, E. (2012, July 17). Understanding the Value of Backbone Organizations in Collective Impact: Parts 1-4. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from Collective Impact is an emerging mindset to address systemic changes, but the framework relies on “backbone support” to ensure the effort creates progress and impact. In 2012 FSG and the Greater Cincinnati Foundation (GCF) began exploring how backbone organizations effect change; contribute to the effort, measure success, and their common challenges and improvements. GCF has become Cincinnati’s main support for funding and supporting Collective Impact the city’s “new normal.” This series of articles clarifies what backbone organizations do which ultimately guides the vision and strategy and supports the aligned activities. The backbone is critical in success of Collective Impact efforts because they provide the overall coordination of the program/project. Not only is a backbone organization necessary, the characteristics of an effective backbone are just as important; such desired characteristics are pointed out in the article.
Tyagi, P. K. (1985).  Relative Importance of Key Job Dimensions and Leadership Behaviors in Motivating Salesperson Work Performance.  Retrieved from: This article examines the relative importance of key job dimensions and leadership characteristics in enhancing salesperson motivation and work performance. To gain a deeper insight, the relative effects of job dimensions and leadership behavior on intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation of salespersons are examined, with results indicating that key job dimensions are more instrumental in enhancing work motivation, and leadership behavior more influential in affecting extrinsic motivation.  May be beneficial for chapter, but will need to evaluate discussion of feedback further.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). 2006. The Rationale for Diversity in the Health Professions: A Review of the Evidence. Washington, DG: Government Printing Office. This report released by the Department of Health and Human Services summarized a literature review performed with the intent of determining whether there was evidence that a diverse healthcare workforce improved public health, particularly in ethnic and racial minorities. They found that underrepresented minority healthcare workers tended to serve underrepresented minority populations, resulting in increased access to care for these groups. They also found that underrepresented minority patients or patients that did not speak English as their primary language, received better care from healthcare workers of similar background. The data seemed to support that public health for these underrepresented groups was improved through increased diversity in the healthcare workforce. They were, however, unable to demonstrate evidence that increased minority representation in the healthcare workforce improved community trust in healthcare providers.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health, Healthy People 2020, The Healthy People report is publication of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Department of Health and Human Services. This report is published every ten years to establish focal points for national health priorities and disease prevention. For the first time, the 2010 Healthy People report (Healthy People 2020) included a distinct set of priorities and recommendations for the health of LGBT community members. This report describes specific health disparities experienced by the LGBT community, causes for these disparities and recommendations for improving the health of LGBT individuals.
Understanding Implicit Bias. (2015). Retrieved from: This source was utilized for its definition of implicit bias.
Vilardaga, R., Luoma, J. B., Hayes, S. C., Pistorello, J., Levin, M. E., Hildebrandt, M. J., . . . Bond, F. (2011). Burnout among the addiction counseling workforce: The differential roles of mindfulness and values-based processes and work-site factors.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 40 (4), 323-335. 10.1016/j.jsat.2010.11.015 As part of gathering baseline data for a larger burnout-prevention intervention, the authors studied mindfulness (relating to their Acceptance Commitment Therapy intervention), values-based processes (actions and thoughts consistent with values), and work-site factors (job control, salary, social support, workload, and tenure) among addiction counselors (n = 699). Using multiple linear regression models, the authors found stronger correlations to burnout in mindfulness and values-based processes as compared to the work-site factors (11% variance increase on average). The study also concluded, with disclaimers, that higher salary levels were predictive of higher exhaustion and depersonalization levels. The findings corroborated literature that suggests the longer a counselor stays in their position, the lower the level of turnover intent. Mindfulness and encouragement or inventory of values-based actions could be helpful constructs for addiction treatment organization leaders to employ with their team.
Vogel, A. L., Hall, K. L., Fiore, S. M., Klein, J. T. (2013) The Team Science Toolkit: Enhancing Research Collaboration Through Online Knowledge Sharing . American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 45(6): pp.787-789. In this brief article, Vogel et al. further explore the benefits and challenges associated with Team Science. They state that working in teams scientists are able to “draw on multiple disciplines, fields, and professions.” This can be hugely beneficial when tackling complex, multidisciplinary problems, but can also pose significant challenges, especially in the area of communication. Team members can be both geographically and temporally distant, meaning that even getting everyone in front of a computer at the same time for a Skype call or Zoom meeting can be a challenge. Additionally, there are bound to be barriers in communication. These barriers can be fundamental at the language level, or terminology-wise (different fields use different terms to describe the same things), or both. The authors go on to discuss the newly emerging field of the Science of Team Science (SciTS) which is developing to meet the needs of these multidisciplinary teams.
Volker, R., Bernhard, B., Anna, K., Fabrizio, S., Robin, R., Jessica, P., . . . Norbert, S. (2010). Burnout, coping and job satisfaction in service staff treating opioid addicts—From athens to zurich.  Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 26 (2), 149-159. 10.1002/smi.1276 Volket et al. gathered treatment provider data from six different opioid treatment centers across Europe: Athens, London, Padua, Stockholm, Zurich, and Essen. The study is part of the larger Treatment-systems Research on European Addiction Treatment study (TREAT). The participants (n = 902) were only required to be health care workers delivering therapy or counseling to primarily opioid users. Participants completed, in addition to other batteries, the Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) and a job satisfaction scale. The MBI covers three constructs: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Logistic regression was used to analyze possible predictors of burnout, and ANOVA was used for group comparisons. The logistic regression, however, only included a subset of persons from Essen, Stockholm, and Zurich (n = 142). Health care workers with low job satisfaction had 13.2 the odds of experiencing burnout compared to those with higher job satisfaction. Opioid treatment providers with high levels of burnout view their work situation as out of their control and try to avoid their negative emotions.
Vries, M. F., Vrignaud, P., & Florent-Treacy, E. (2004). The Global Leadership Life Inventory: Development and psychometric properties of a 360-degree feedback instrument. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(3), 475-492. doi:10.1080/0958519042000181214 Retrieved from : This article describes how the “360-degree feedback instrument” was developed. The authors acknowledge that leadership behavior is psychodynamic and often carries themes among those leaders who are exemplary including what “makes them tick” and how they interact with their followers in a one-on-one context. They interviewed senior leadership executives and developed the dimensions they felt were consistent among the executives and then tested on a separate group of executives to assess validity. The authors were able to narrow down 12 “dimensions” of good leadership then assessed for validity. This is a helpful article because it explains the origins of the 360-degree feedback tool that is used and referenced in other articles.
Weech-Maldonado, R., Dreachslin, J. L., Epané, J. P., Gail, J., Gupta, S., & Wainio, J. A. (2018). Hospital cultural competency as a systematic organizational intervention: Key findings from the national center for healthcare leadership diversity demonstration project.  Health care management review ,  43 (1), 30-41. This study did a control/intervention study in 2 separate hospital systems looking at whether systematic organizational diversity interventions had noticeable effects on the culture within the hospital system. Two hospitals within each system were chosen with one as a control and one receiving the intervention. A diversity consultant came in and worked with hospital leadership to develop diversity interventions at the organizational and individual levels to improve the diversity climate in the hospital. Organizational changes focused on increasing diversity at the leadership level, improving recruitment and retention of diverse applicants, and demonstrating cultural competency when providing patient care. Individual changes focused on addressing implicit and explicit biases, measuring attitudes regarding diversity, and perceptions of racial and ethnic identity. Pre-and Post-Intervention Assessments were administered at each of the hospitals to determine the effect(s) of the diversity initiative. More notable improvements were documented at the organizational and individual levels in the intervention hospitals compared to the control hospitals.
Wewers, M., PhD, MPH. (2018, March 1). Leadership Story of Mary Ellen Wewers, PhD, MPH [Personal interview]. Dr. Wewers has been leading research in the field of tobacco cessation for many years. She has held many leadership roles throughout her career with her first coming very early in her career as a head nurse in an intensive care unit. She then went on to become a nurse practitioner, earned her PhD in nursing and an MPH in Health Care Management and Policy. Dr. Wewers believes in the importance of of having a good leader to make sure a team of people has someone to give them direction. This interview discusses her beliefs of what good leadership is and some of her experiences leading throughout her successful career. One of the several pieces of advice she offers us it that showing what your passionate about will go a long way in helping you achieve your goals.
Wilson, R. T. (1998). Servant Leadership.  Physician Executive Journal,24 (5). The article starts out by talking about different views of leadership, highlighting that in the past it has mainly been top-down. There is not a specific model through which a leader can be described and different people have different ways to differentiate between leadership styles. Nevertheless, one consistency across different models of leadership styles is the servant leadership style. The article states that servant leaders can mainly be found in service-based environments. Servant leadership is characterized by making sure that others’ needs and priorities are met and it is about caring for others. The ten characteristics of servant leadership are listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community. Additionally, the article also touches on possible challenges faced by servant leaders and how it relates to chaos theory.
Windle, G., Bennett, K. M., & Noyes, J. (2011). A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9, 8. Systematic review compares many measurement tools that can be used to measure resilience. Many of the measurements are tailored toward children or young adults, but there are some assessments that would be appropriate for adults working on professional teams. There is a need for continued research in this area as even the best resilience measurement tools were moderately effective at best. Although not a traditional assessment used in the workplace I would argue that it would be worth exploring the use of such assessments on all teams, as building resilience has been shown to decrease burnout among other positives for teams. Having a resilience score for team members can give leaders a tool to lead intentional development through trainings and intentional coaching conversations to help staff members continue to grow in the area of resilience.
Wolff, T. (2016). Ten Places Where Collective Impact Gets It Wrong. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 7(1), 1-11. Retrieved from While Collective Impact is seen to be a new and preferred framework, there are some downfalls as identified from this article. First, some coalitions miss the grassroots perspective which still produces results, but fails to see the view of those affected in the actual community. This is where community based participatory research is more beneficial because the community presents the issue that leads the efforts/change. The other concern with CI is that it might still take a top-down approach which involves the highest in power for organizations involved, instead of those doing the work on coalitions at the community level. While CI does indeed result in changes, the framework does not address the systems or policy changes to make impact sustainable without dispute. On top of all these concerns, CI fails to have research to back up such practices and only has a few case studies to explain the successes of implementing. Also, backbones are assumed to have sources to funding, but many have to apply for the amount to truly carry out the project.
Woods, D. (2012). Defining the Art of Big Data Leadership. Forbes , pp. 1–2. This article may serve as a useful starting point in my chapter. The focus here is to state that the world of big data is not impeded by the technology and lack of solutions itself, but instead by a lack of leadership creating appropriate cultures for big-data. It is acknowledged that there are many open positions for analytical roles but fewer positions for people in leadership to transform how a company uses and views big-data. The interviewee states adamantly that the problem he sees is not with technology but instead with the lack of leadership to put big-data on the agenda for actionable use. I think this is an important point to make because it addresses the separation between having the skills to analyze data with the capacity to transform organizational culture to embrace big-data; which is more my focus in this chapter.
Woolley, L., Caza, A., & Levy, L. (2011). Authentic leadership and follower development: Psychological capital, positive work climate, and gender. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18 (4), 438-448. This article is about the relationship between authentic leadership and the development of follower psychological capital. Psychological capital is defined in the article as an individual’s positive psychological state of development based on self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience. Psychological capital fits into the realm of positive organizational behavior which is concerned with defining, measuring, and developing positive relationships which contribute to improved work performance. The article also discusses how creating a positive work environment aids in the development of psychological capital and can be accomplished by building a safe organizational climate based on personal values. The article also looked at the role gender plays in how followers perceive authentic leaders. They found that followers of both genders perceived authentic leaders contribute to a positive work climate but male followers perceived there to be a greater contribution. This was an interesting finding and I agree with the authors that there is more work to be done on this topic.
Xirasagar, S., Samuels, M. E., & Curtin, T. F. (2006). Management Training of Physician Executives, Their Leadership Style, and Care Management Performance: An Empirical Study.  The American Journal of Managed Care,12 (2),101-108. Across physicians, there can be a lot of variation in practice patterns because physicians are usually the ones who have the decision-making power. The lack of guidelines, or simply not adhering to guidelines can lead to higher costs and lower quality care. Physician leaders can help implement more evidence-based practices, but the issue is that not a lot of organizations devote a lot of resources to physician leadership development. The study in this article looks at the relationship between medical directors’ education and how their supervisors perceived their leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Directors with a MHA, MPH, or MBA degree, or at least 30 days of in-service training were significantly more likely to have transformational and transactional leadership skills and they were perceived as being more effective. They were also less likely to have laissez-faire leadership skills.
Yang, C.C., Wang, Y.S., Chang, S.T., Guo, S.E., & Huang, M.F. (2009). A study on the leadership behavior, safety culture, and safety performance of the healthcare industry, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 29. Retrieved from Though based on a hospital in Taiwan, this study provides valuable information about the impact of leadership behavior on safety culture and performance that can be beneficial to healthcare institutions around the world. Through surveys of healthcare workers and data of safety events and prevention measures at the hospital, the authors concluded that there is a direct relationship between safety culture and safety outcomes. This suggests the importance of an overall culture of safety if positive safety outcomes are desired. Additionally, the authors concluded that there is a relationship between leadership behavior and safety culture, which suggests that this ultimately has a relationship with safety outcomes. Similar to conclusions in other articles, these authors assert that there must be a system to report incidents as well as a non-punitive response when safety events occur.
Yariv, E. (2006). “Mum effect”: Principals' reluctance to submit negative feedback. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (6), 533-546. Retrieved from:'_reluctance_to_submit_negative_feedback Yariv introduces a spin on feedback delivery by studying how principals provide feedback to poor performing teachers. In what Yariv terms an “exploratory” study, she interviewed 40 principals and asked them to describe how they delivered negative feedback to teachers. What she found was that feedback happened in 4 stages and the emotions accompanying them were mostly anger and compassion and heavily depended on how the previous stage ended up. This is an interesting article that is not directly healthcare related but provides more insight on the interpersonal relationships between leaders and followers. I think this will add substance to the pressbook article.  
Yphantides, N., Escoboza, S., & Macchione, N. (2015). Leadership in Public Health: New Competencies for the Future. Frontiers in Public Health , 3 , 24. This article discusses the emergence of public health from ‘behind the scenes’ to being more on the forefront of community and global initiatives. The article specifically looks at San Diego County, California, which is the fifth most populous county in the United State. San Diego County has a very diverse population with many different races, languages, ethnicities, ages, income levels, and educational backgrounds. Because of this diversity, it was chosen to study the challenges and successes of health care and public health working together to create a healthier population. The three attributes of leadership presented by the authors are visions, influence, and values. They then go on to the discuss these attributes in some detail. The article wraps up by discussing the change needed in the education system in order to train a new workforce for service in healthcare and public health careers.
Zander, L., Zettinig, P., & Makela, K. (2013). Leading global virtual teams to success. Organizational Dynamics, 42(3), 228-237. doi:10.1016/J.ORGDYN.2013.06.008 Zander, Zettinig, and Makela’s article focused on what they identified as three critical challenges of virtual teams. These challenges include goal alignment, knowledge transfer, and motivation. Having consistent goals, or the lack of them, across the team impacts a team’s effectiveness. The authors emphasized the importance of communication and trust and discussed how it is needed to effectively share knowledge. Additionally, they focused on motivation and explored cultural differences around it. Finally, the article also identified three phases, welcoming, working, and wrapping up, and areas of focus for virtual teams within each.
Zettlemeyer, F. (n.d.). A Leaders Guide to Data Analytics. Kellogg Insight . Retrieved from This article guides leaders through data analytics by addressing different facets of implementation and emphasis of data in organizations. First, there is a focus towards how data is collected and that this should be always purpose driven to address specific problems or questions. There is also importance to understand the data-generation process; what is empirically driving your data. This relates back towards awareness and organizational silos. Everything is connected and trends or decisions occur for real world reason. Most importantly in this source is the reiteration that data and analytics should be shared across an organization to create a “disciplined, data-literate company”. Again, we see the common thread that everyone needs to feel empowered to ask questions and answer them and then use that knowledge to drive action using data. This requires openness and willingness to share data and be transparent that not everyone is an expert on everything. This source will help add some insight on how leaders can use a working knowledge of data science to bolster data friendly culture in their organizations.
Zhang X, Cao Q, Tjosvold D. Linking Transformational Leadership and Team Performance: A Conflict Management Approach. Journal of Management Studies. Nov 2011;48(7):1586-1611. This study takes a look at how transformational leadership affects team coordination and performance through the conflict management that the team members decided to use. The goal was to understand how transformational leadership on team interaction and conflict is important in team context. The authors wanted to add to the research of how transformational leadership effects team context. More specifically the authors of this study wanted to see how transformational leaders create team goals and shared visions that are “conducive to the team’s cooperative approach to managing conflict.” The authors theorized that transformational leaders manage their conflicts cooperatively which in turn promotes team coordination and team performance. The results of this study showed that this type of leadership style did assist team members in resolving conflicts that was for the mutual benefit of the entire team. I feel that this is an excellent article to use for my pressbook chapter because it is the first study I found that analyses a specific leadership style and how it contributes to conflict management within teams.
Zocchi, M. S., McClelland, M. S., & Pines, J. M. (December 01, 2015). Increasing Throughput: Results from a 42-Hospital Collaborative to Improve Emergency Department Flow.  41,  12, 532-541. Bottom of Form This study conducted by Zocchi et al. is very impressive and one of the few studies I found that identifies a need for improved leadership/teamwork in a field of healthcare (emergency medicine, in this case) and implements and analyzes such extensive changes. For this study, 172 interventions were implemented across 42 hospitals as part of the Aligning Forces for Quality program. Two-thirds (28) of the hospitals from the study saw improvement on one or more metrics. Many of the truly impressive changes achieved through this study (reduction in patient wait time, rates of patients who left without being seen, unnecessarily long stays, etc.) were improved through changes in leadership and the introduction of teams, even if only for educational and not collaborative purposes. While important improvements for a number of hospitals were made, one-third of the hospitals enrolled in the study did not show improvements and 40 of the initial 82 hospitals who signed up to participate in the Aligning Forces for Quality program dropped out of the study, convinced that they couldn’t make the changes necessary: clearly more work needs to be done to help hospitals prepare for large-scale changes and incorporating teams.



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