Action: the fourth of five stages in the transtheoretical model of behavior change, characterized by taking very specific, concrete, active steps to change the target behavior and keep the change momentum going.
adverse childhood events (ACES): potentially traumatizing experiences or events occurring during childhood that can or do have a persistent, negative impact on physical health, emotional health, behavioral/mental health, well-being, or development.
Contemplation: the second of five stages in the transtheoretical model of behavior change, characterized by awareness and ownership of that a problem exists and a general intent to change in the relatively near future but no concrete impending plan to change.
continuum of care framework: depicting an array of service/intervention options as representing different aspects of health promotion, prevention, treatment, and recovery/maintenance.
decisional balance: a process in intentional behavior change whereby an individual is aware of the pros and cons of both changing and not changing the target behavior.
gateway drug theory: a theory that use of one type of substance serves as a prelude to use of a different type.
indicated prevention: interventions delivered to populations/groups of individuals exhibiting/expressing warning signs foreshadowing development of the focal problem.
lapse: engaging in a limited way in a behavior that has been the target of an intentional behavior change effort (distinct from relapse).
Maintenance: the fifth of five stages in the transtheoretical model of behavior change, characterized by normalizing changed behaviors and relapse prevention efforts.
Precontemplation: the first of five stages in the transtheoretical model of behavior change, characterized by a lack of intent to change a particular behavior either due to a lack of problem awareness or low self-efficacy for being able to successfully change.
Preparation: the third of five stages in the transtheoretical model of behavior change, characterized by efforts to set oneself up to actively engage in change efforts within the next 30 days (one month), potentially including initial change steps which may not be successful.
promotion strategies: strengths-based interventions designed to build resilience and promote well-being.
relapse: an emotional, mental, physical process whereby an individual returns or risks return to a past behavior pattern that was the target of intentional behavior change.
relapse prevention: efforts designed to identify relapse risk factors and intervene before an individual in recovery re-engages with the problem behavior.
risk/protective continuum: refers to extrinsic factors that increase (risk) or decrease (protective) the probability of a specific problem emerging, across a continuity of probabilities.
selective prevention: interventions directed towards populations identified as having a potential somewhat greater than the general population for developing the focal problem.
self-efficacy: a process in intentional behavior change whereby individuals experience differing degrees of belief in their ability to succeed in their change effort and/or to sustain the desired change over time.
transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM or TMBC): a model of the processes and stages typically experienced in the course of intentional behavior change.
universal prevention: interventions delivered to the general population without differentiating between persons at different risk levels.
vulnerability/resilience continuum: refers to intrinsic factors that increase (vulnerability) or decrease (resilience) the probability of a specific problem emerging, across a continuity of probabilities.