Module 9: Key Terms
anandamide: an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter naturally produced in humans, operating in the endocannabinoid system.
bath salts: a type of (questionably legal) synthetically produced hallucinogenic stimulants.
cannabinoid: any of the class of chemical compounds acting on cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system (e.g., THC and CBD).
cannabinoid receptors: part of the endocannabinoid system and located throughout the human body, they are involved in psychoactive responses to cannabinoids including appetite, mood, memory, and sensitivity to pain.
cannabis: label applied to cannabis sativa, indica, and ruderalis among the many types of plants in the cannabis family; often referred to as marijuana and typically distinguished from hemp based on its concentration of psychoactive substances (specifically, THC).
cannabis use disorder: a specific diagnosis in the DSM-5 and ICD-11 defined by a number of substance use disorder diagnostic criteria.
dextromethorphan (DXM): a cough suppressing ingredient commonly found in over-the-counter (OTC) formulations; when consumed in large quantities, potentially has hallucinogenic effects but this comes with significant side effect risks.
dissociative substances (dissociatives): a type of hallucinogen which, in addition to other psychoactive effects, produce a sense of detachment from one’s self/body or environment.
edibles: cannabis-infused products containing THC consumed by eating or drinking.
endocannabinoid system: an endogenous cell-signaling system in the human body that regulates a variety of mental and physical processes through response to cannabinoids (whether endogenously produced or exogenously introduced).
endocannabinoids: cannabinoids produced endogenously (naturally) in the body.
flashback (drug-related): the re-experiencing of a drug’s effects without having used it again and after the drug has been fully metabolized (no longer in the body); may occur long after the true drug effects have ceased.
hallucinogenic substances (hallucinogens): a varied group of substances, natural or synthetic, with the potential for causing a person to experience a dramatically distorted reality (hallucination), usually in the visual or auditory sphere, but may also affect time sense, tactile sensation, and other mental functions.
hemp: low THC content cannabis sativa used for its material properties and possible medical applications rather than psychoactive characteristics.
K2: synthetically produced cannabinoid produced by spraying dried plant material with psychoactive chemicals; synthetic marijuana (see Spice entry).
ketamine: originally developed for use as an anesthetic, has significant dissociative and hallucinogenic effects; often considered one of the “club drugs.”
kratom: derived from leaves of a specific plant, it has some effects similar to opioids and stimulants, may also have hallucinogenic effects and is potentially addictive.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide): a synthetically produced, highly concentrated hallucinogen.
marijuana: a commonly used name for cannabis used for its psychoactive effects.
MDMA/ecstasy: synthetically produced hallucinogenic substance with stimulant effects; considered one of the “club drugs.”
mescaline (peyote cactus): hallucinogen derived from the peyote cactus and other similar species; may also be synthetically produced.
PCP (phencyclidine): originally developed for anesthesia, misused for its psychoactive (hallucinogenic) effects, it also may produce amnesia.
potentiating effect: when one substance increases the potency or effectiveness of another.
psilocybin (“magic mushrooms”): hallucinogenic substance naturally occurring in specific species of mushroom; over 100 species contain psilocybin at varying degrees of potency (https://www.livescience.com/psilocybin.html).
psychotomimetic: substance that, in the short-term, induces effects that mimic (imitate) a psychotic episode.
salvia divornum: a plant species with leaves that can produce hallucinogenic effects when chewed or drunk as tea.
Spice: synthetically produced cannabinoid produced by spraying dried plant material with psychoactive chemicals; synthetic marijuana (see K2 entry).
synesthesia: when one of the senses is perceived by another sense, such as sound being visual or something seen being heard; some versions associate objects with color, flavor, or scent (e.g., the letter A being red and the letter B as blue).
telescoping: refers to accelerated rate of progression of substance use disorder symptoms/criteria often seen in women compared to men.
tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)/THC: the primary psychoactive ingredient in cannabis.
trip (tripping): an altered state-of-consciousness episode induced by use of an hallucinogenic substance.