aggregated data: data are combined from multiple sources (study participants or measures) in a summary form, rather than being presented on individual cases or measures.
beneficence principle: a principle directed toward ensuring that research participants are treated in an ethical manner, protected from harm, and what is in their best interests is promoted; one of three key principles identified in the Belmont Report.
coercive incentives: influencing a person to make a specific decision or behave in a certain manner that the person would not have ordinarily made or done, especially of concern if the decision or behavior might be detrimental to the person.
conflict of interest: situation where a person in an official role (e.g., research investigator, practitioner, supervisor) might derive personal benefit from their professional decisions or actions.
control group: in an experiment, the group used as a comparison or benchmark for groups receiving an intervention or condition of study interest.
cost-effectiveness evaluation: research analyzing the costs of an intervention relative to the resulting benefits or observed outcomes.
efficacy study: intervention research conducted under ideal, controlled conditions with select study participants (in contrast to effectiveness studies).
effectiveness study: intervention research conducted under real-world conditions with relatively diverse study participants (in contrast to efficacy studies).
evaluation research: a form of applied research aimed at determining the worth of engaging in a specific intervention (practice, program, or policy).
evidence-based practices (EBPs): interventions that have a body of evidence supporting their use or application in professional practice.
evidence-based practice (EBP): a specific process for practice decision-making that incorporates practice evidence with other sources of information.
evidence-informed practice: practices and interventions developed on the basis of information from research evidence.
iatrogenic effect: harm or illness resulting from applying an intervention.
intervention: taking action to improve an undesirable condition or situation.
intervention research: research studies designed to answer generalizable questions concerning the effects, safety, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and/or implementation of an intentional change strategy or approach.
needs assessment: research effort directed toward identifying unmet needs of a group/population or gaps in a service delivery system.
outcome evaluation: a systematic research approach applied to determine the effects (on specific outcomes) of intervening.
practice evaluation: a systematic research approach applied by practitioners to determine the effects of intervening with a particular client or client system.
process evaluation: a systematic research approach applied to determine how an intervention was actually delivered.
program evaluation: a systematic research approach applied to determine the effects of specific programs for clients/consumers/participants or other stakeholder groups.
policy evaluation: a systematic research approach applied to determine the impact or effects of an intervention at the level of policy.
treatment-as-usual (TAU) condition: an experimental control condition where the comparison group is offered the usual type/level of intervention (as opposed to no intervention), to be compared with the intervention innovation of interest.