COPES framework: a system for helping practitioners frame clear practice questions to guide their search for evidence.
distal outcomes: effects or impact of an intervention that appear in the long-term or long-range time frame.
effect size: a quantitative (statistical) indicator of the size or magnitude of an observed difference, helping interpret how meaningful a difference might be.
errata: means of correcting errors that appeared in print (published errors).
inputs: the resources committed to an intervention or change effort.
keywords: search terms associated with a manuscript to assist those seeking to locate information on the topics covered.
logic model: a “map” of an intervention plan that includes the various inputs and outputs anticipated.
mechanism of change: the underlying processes leading to a change outcome, often identified as mediators of influence.
mediators: variables or factors that influence or determine the path between an “input” and “outcome” (see mechanism of change).
meta-analysis: form of systematic statistical analysis allowing data from multiple studies to be combined into a single analysis to assess an intervention’s impact common to each of the included studies.
outputs: the results, effects, or impacts of an intervention effort.
PICO framework: a system for helping practitioners frame clear practice questions to guide their search for evidence, common in medical professions.
precision (of search): a concept from information science related to the proportion of items retrieved from a search strategy (query).
proximal outcomes: effects or impact of an intervention that appear in the short-term or immediate time frame.
psychometric properties: results of analysis concerning the validity and reliability characteristics of a measurement instrument, indicative of how valid and reliable the instrument is for measuring the intended constructs; psychometric properties may vary with different populations being measured.
scoping review: a form of systematic review that applies less stringent (precise) criteria, typically applied when an area or topic is emerging and insufficiently developed for a formal systematic or meta-analysis review to be conducted.
sensitivity (of search): a concept from information science related to the inclusiveness or breadth in range of items retrieved from a search strategy (query).
systematic review: a summary of evidence presented in literature that is conducted systematically, applying unbiased criteria for locating, reviewing, and critiquing the literature and integrating the analysis results.