Chapter 2 – Race and Ethnicity

2.3 Race and Ethnic Bias References

  1. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care; Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR, editors. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2003.
  2. Staats C, Capatosto K, Tenney L, Mamo S. State of the Science Implicit Bias Review 2017 Edition. Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity.  Accessed December 22, 2017.
  3. Hoffman KM, Trawalter S, Axt JR, Oliver N. Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites. PNAS. 2015; 113 (16): 4296–4301.
  4. Penner, L.A., et al., The Effects of Oncologist Implicit Racial Bias in Racially Discordant Oncology Interactions. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2016; 34(24): 2874–2880.
  5. Byrne, A., Tanesini, A. Instilling New Habits: Addressing Implicit Bias in Healthcare Professionals. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2015; 20(5), 1255–1262.
  6. Mezirow J. Perspective Transformation. Adult Education. 1978; 28(2): 100-110.
  7. Mezirow J. Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood: A Guide to Transformative and Emancipatory Learning. Publisher: Jossey-Bass; 1st edition (February 23, 1990).
  8. Gibbons M.C., Shaikh Y. The Patient of the Future: Participatory Medicine and Enabling Technologies. In: Weaver C., Ball M., Kim G., Kiel J. (eds) Healthcare Information Management Systems. Health Informatics. Springer, Cham; 2016: 283-297.
  9. Winbush GB, McDougle L, Labranche L, Khan SS, Tolliver SO. Health Empowerment Technologies (HET): Building a Web-Based Tool to Empower Older African American Patient-Doctor Relationships. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. November 2013;24(4 Suppl):106-17.
  10. Paul-Emile K, Smith AK, Lo B, Fernandez A. Dealing with Racist Patients. N Engl J Med. 2016; 374 (8): 708-711.
  11. Shahriari N, Lakdawala N, Grant-Keis JM. Multiculturalism and diversity: How to ethically care for a prejudiced patient. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016; 75;234-6.
  12. Padela A, Schneider SM, He H, Ali Z, Richardson TM. Patient choice of provider type in the emergency department: perceptions and factors relating to accommodation of requests for care providers. Emerg Med J. 2010; 27: 465-469.
  13. Doede M. Race as a predictor of job satisfaction and turnover in US nurses. Journal of Nursing Management. 2017; 1-8.
  14. Wilson S. Credentials Don’t Shield Doctors, Nurses from Bias. WebMD. October 18, 2017. Accessed December 22, 2017.
  15. Sue DW, et al. Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist. 2007; Vol. 62, No. 4, 271–286. Accessed December 22, 2017.
  16. Parekh R, Bell CC. Overcoming Prejudice at Work (Harvard Medical School Guides). Publisher: RosettaBooks (December 17, 2012).
  17. Camara Jones, MD, MPH, PhD, Levels of Racism: A Theoretic Framework and a Gardener’s Tale. American Journal of Public Health. August 2000, Vol. 90, No. 8:1212-15.
  18. Hagiwara, N., Kashy, D. A., & Penner, L. A. A novel analytical strategy for patient-physician communication research: The one-with-many design. Patient Education and Counseling. 2014; 95, 325–331.


Perspectives on Bias in Medicine Copyright © 2018 by Camilla Curren MD. All Rights Reserved.