Chapter 5 – Poverty, Class, and Privilege

5.3 Poverty, Privilege, and Class Bias References

  1. Economic Mobility Is Fading—and So Is the American Dream – Pacific Standard. 2017.
  2. Grantham-McGregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. The Lancet.369(9555):60-70.
  3. Hitchen L. Address poverty to reduce mental health problems among children, says BMA. BMJ : British Medical Journal. 2006;332(7556):1471-1471.
  4. Stepanikova I, Oates GR. Perceived Discrimination and Privilege in Health Care: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Race. Am J Prev Med. 2017;52(1S1):S86-S94.
  5. Lai LL, Alfaifi A, Althemery A. Healthcare Disparities in Hispanic Diabetes Care: A Propensity Score-Matched Study. J Immigr Minor Health. 2016.
  6. Dragano N, Bobak M, Wege N, et al. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany. BMC Public Health. 2007;7(1):255.
  7. Peasey A, Bobak M, Kubinova R, et al. Determinants of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases in Central and Eastern Europe: Rationale and design of the HAPIEE study. BMC Public Health. 2006;6.
  8. Kwate NO, Goodman MS. An empirical analysis of White privilege, social position and health. Soc Sci Med. 2014;116:150-160.
  9. Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequalities. Nancy E. Adler, PhD1,2; M. Maria Glymour, ScD, MS2,3; Jonathan Fielding, MD, MPH4,5 Author Affiliations Article Information JAMA. 2016;316(16):1641-1642. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.14058
  10. Pikhart H, Bobak M, Pajak A, et al. Psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58.
  11. Bobak M, Pikhart H, Rose R, Hertzman C, Marmot M. Socioeconomic factors, material inequalities, and perceived control in self-rated health: cross-sectional data from seven post-communist countries. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51.
  12. Krieger N, Waterman PD, Spasojevic J, Li W, Maduro G, Van Wye G. Public Health Monitoring of Privilege and Deprivation With the Index of Concentration at the Extremes. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(2):256-263.
  14. Nelson A. Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare J Natl Med Assoc. 2002;94(8):666-668.
  15. Maguire MS, Kottenhahn R, Consiglio-Ward L, Smalls A, Dressler R. Using a Poverty Simulation in Graduate Medical Education as a Mechanism to Introduce Social Determinants of Health and Cultural Competency. J Grad Med Educ. 2017;9(3):386-387.
  16. Hudon C, Loignon C, Grabovschi C, et al. Medical education for equity in health: a participatory action research involving persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals. BMC Med Educ. 2016;16:106.
  17. Holm AL, Rowe Gorosh M, Brady M, White-Perkins D. Recognizing Privilege and Bias: An Interactive Exercise to Expand Health Care Providers’ Personal Awareness. Acad Med. 2017;92(3):360-364.


Perspectives on Bias in Medicine Copyright © 2018 by Camilla Curren MD. All Rights Reserved.