Chapter 8 – Women

8.3 Bias Against Women References

  1. Foster SW, McMurray JE, Linzer M, Leavitt JW, Rosenberg M, Carnes M. Results of a gender-climate and work-environment survey at a midwestern academic health center. Acad Med. 2000;75(6):653-660.
  2. Files JA, Mayer AP, Ko MG, et al. Speaker Introductions at Internal Medicine Grand Rounds: Forms of Address Reveal Gender Bias. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017.
  3. Freund KM, Raj A, Kaplan SE, et al. Inequities in Academic Compensation by Gender: A Follow-up to the National Faculty Survey Cohort Study. Acad Med. 2016;91(8):1068-1073.
  4. Sheridan J, Savoy JN, Kaatz A, Lee YG, Filut A, Carnes M. Write More Articles, Get More Grants: The Impact of Department Climate on Faculty Research Productivity. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017.
  5. Surawicz CM. Women in Leadership: Why So Few and What to Do About It. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016;13(12 Pt A):1433-1437.
  6. O’Connor MI. Medical School Experiences Shape Women Students’ Interest in Orthopaedic Surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016;474(9):1967-1972.
  7. Mueller C, Wright R, Girod S. The publication gender gap in US academic surgery. BMC Surg. 2017;17(1):16.
  8. Hillinger P, Twerenbold R, Wildi K, et al. Gender-specific uncertainties in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Clin Res Cardiol. 2017;106(1):28-37.
  9. #ILookLikeASurgeon: Female Surgical Residents Reflect on Training at URMC – Newsroom – University of Rochester Medical Center. 2017;
  10. Weber-Main AM, Finstad DA, Center BA, Bland CJ. An adaptive approach to facilitating research productivity in a primary care clinical department. Acad Med. 2013;88(7):929-938.
  11. Galvin SL, Parlier AB, Martino E, Scott KR, Buys E. Gender Bias in Nurse Evaluations of Residents in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126 Suppl 4:7S-12S.
  12. Doubleday AF, Lee LM. Dissecting the voice: Health professions students’ perceptions of instructor age and gender in an online environment and the impact on evaluations for faculty. Anat Sci Educ. 2016;9(6):537-544.
  13. Dusch MN, Braun HJ, O’Sullivan PS, Ascher NL. Perceptions of surgeons: what characteristics do women surgeons prefer in a colleague? Am J Surg. 2014;208(4):601-604.
  14. Harassment and Discrimination in Medical Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Fnais, Naif MS; Soobiah, Charlene; Chen, Maggie Hong PhD, MSc; Lillie, Erin MSc; Perrier, Laure MLIS; Tashkhandi, Mariam MD; Straus, Sharon E. MD, MSc; Mamdani, Muhammad PharmD, MA, MPH; Al-Omran, Mohammed MD, MSc; Tricco, Andrea C. PhD, MSc. Academic Medicine: May 2014 – Volume 89 – Issue 5 – p 817–827.
  15. Arslanian-Engoren C, Scott LD. Women’s perceptions of biases and barriers in their myocardial infarction triage experience. Heart Lung. 2016;45(3):166-172.
  16. Choi K, Shofer FS, Mills AM. Sex differences in STEMI activation for patients presenting to the ED 1939. Am J Emerg Med. 2016;34(10):1939-1943.
  17. Delgado A, Saletti-Cuesta L, López-Fernández LA, Gil-Garrido N, Luna Del Castillo JeD. Gender inequalities in COPD decision-making in primary care. Respir Med. 2016;114:91-96.
  18. Stålnacke BM, Haukenes I, Lehti A, Wiklund AF, Wiklund M, Hammarström A. Is there a gender bias in recommendations for further rehabilitation in primary care of patients with chronic pain after an interdisciplinary team assessment? J Rehabil Med. 2015;47(4):365-371.
  19. Kane BG, Guillaume AWD, Evans EM, et al. Gender Differences in CDC Guideline Compliance for STIs in Emergency Departments. West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(3):390-397.
  20. Canadiam Medical Association Journal, December 4, 2007 vol. 177 no. 12 First published November 14, 2007, doi: 10.1503/cmaj.071112. Sex-and age-based differences in the delivery and outcomes of critical care.  Robert A. Fowler MDCM MS, Natasha Sabur MD, Ping Li PhD, David N. Juurlink MD MSc, Ruxandra Pinto PhD, Michelle A. Hladunewich MD MS, Neill K.J. Adhikari MDCM MS, William J. Sibbald MD MPH, Claudio M. Martin MD MSc
  21. Andrews N, Greenfield S, Drever W, Redwood S. Strong, female and Black: Stereotypes of African Caribbean women’s body shape and their effects on clinical encounters. Health (London). 2017;21(2):189-204.
  22. Kent JA, Patel V, Varela NA. Gender disparities in health care. Mt Sinai J Med. 2012;79(5):555-559.22
  23. Alspach JG. Is There Gender Bias in Critical Care? 2012.


Perspectives on Bias in Medicine Copyright © 2018 by Camilla Curren MD. All Rights Reserved.