Chapter 11: Urinary system
A. Wong and R. Cianciolo
This chapter will cover the urinary system.
Chapter Learning Objectives
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Describe the components of the nephron, with specific reference to histologic features, location and function.
- Identify and describe the histologic features, location and function of the following components of the glomerulus: endothelial cells, glomerular basement membrane, podocytes, mesangial cells, Bowman’s space, Bowman’s capsule.
- Describe how plasma (intravascular) is filtered across the glomerular basement membrane, and describe the cells that contribute to the filtration barrier.
- Describe how the tubular segment of the nephron modifies filtrate to maintain homeostasis.
- Describe the anatomic and microanatomy of the lower urinary tract.
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to answer the following:
- Define the following renal components: Medullary ray, lobe, lobule, papilla and calyx
- How do the cortex, corticomedullary junction, and medulla differ?
- What are the 3 components of the glomerular filtration barrier? What are their properties?
- Describe endothelial fenestrations and glycocalyx.
- Describe podocytes (their shape) and slit diaphragms.
- Describe reabsorption. What types of molecules are reabsorbed? How are they reabsorbed?
- What are the distinguishing features of the proximal tubules and distal convoluted tubules?
- What are some mechanisms for transporting molecules across a cell membrane or space? Which of these require energy, and why?
- What structures are lined by urothelium?