Chapter 5: Bone

Chapter 5: Bone, Cartilage, and Joints

C. Premanandan

This chapter will cover bone, cartilage, and joints.

Chapter Learning Objectives

imageBy the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  • Define the components of bone on the microscopic level when bone is developing and when an animal is skeletally mature.
  • Describe the function of bone
  • Described the methods in which bone is formed.
  • Classify the types of cartilage present in an animal.
  • Describe the structure of each type of cartilage and list the locations where each is present.
  • Describe the structure of tendons, ligaments and synovium.

Review Questions

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By the end of this chapter, you should be able to answer the following:

  • What are the major organic and inorganic constituents of bone?
  • What are the structure and function of the following cell types:
    • Osteoblast
    • Osteocyte
    • Osteoclast
  • What are the anatomic structures that facilitates communication between osteocytes?
  • Explain the basic process of osteoclastic resorption, naming one important stimulus for resorption?
  • What is the difference between osteoid and bone?
  • What is the difference between woven and lamellar bone?
  • What is the difference between cancellous and compact bone?
  • What is an osteon?
  • What does the term modeling mean in term of bony tissue?
  • What does the term remodeling mean in term of bony tissue? Compare and contrast remodeling and modeling  
    • List the fundamental processes in remodeling, in the proper sequence
  • List two instances where bone remodeling plays an important role in NORMAL bone function
  • What does the process of intramembranous ossification involve? Where does it occur?
  • What does the process of endochondral ossification involve?
    • Name sites where this occurs
    • Explain the difference between a primary and secondary ossification center
    • Define the articular epiphyseal complex
    • List the three processes which are essential for endochondral ossification to occur normally
  • What is the physis and the significance of this finding in a histologic section?
  • What are the three types of cartilage and what locations can they be found?
  • What are the predominant components of cartilage ground substance?
  • What is the structure and function of the following:
    • Chondroblast
    • Chondrocyte
    • Perichondrium
    • Sharpey’s fiber
    • Intervertebral disc
    • Synovial membrane

License

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Chapter 5: Bone, Cartilage, and Joints by Ryan Jennings and Christopher Premanandan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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